Chemistry Unit 6

aldose
a sugar that contains an aldehyde (carbonyl)group
anomeric carbon
isomers of cyclic monosaccharides that differ from one another in the arrangements of bonds around the hemiacetal carbon
carbohydrate
generally sugars and polymers of sugars; the primary source of energy for the cell
cellulose
a polymer of B-D-glucose linked by B (1–>4) glycosidic bonds
chair confirmation
the most energetically favorable conformation for a six-member cycloalkane, so called for itsresemblance of a lawn chair
chiral carbon
a carbon atom bonded to four different atoms or groups of atoms
disaccharide
a sugar composed of two monosaccarides joined through an oxygen an atom bridge
Fischer projection
a two-dimensional drawing of a molecule which shows a chiral carbon at the intersection of two lines and horizontal lines representing bonds projecting out of a page and vertical lines representing bonds that project into a page
fructose
a ketohexose that is also called levulose and fruit sugar; the sweetest of all sugars, the abundant in honey and friuts
galactose
a aldohexose that is a component of lactose (milk sugar)
glucose
an aldohexose, the most abundant monosaccharide; it is a component of many disaccharides, such as lactose and sucrose and a polysaccharides, such as cellulose, starch, and glycogen
glyceraldehyde
an aldotriose that is the simplist carbohydrate; phosphorylated forms of glyceraldehyde are important intermediates in cellular metabolic reactions
glycogen
a long branched polymer of glucose stored in the liver and muscles of animals; it consists of a linear backbone of a-D-glucose in a(1–>4) linage, with numerous short branches attached to the C-6 hydroxyl group by a (1–>6) linkage
glycosidic bond
the bond between the hydroxyl group of the C-1 carbon of one sugar and a hydroxyl group of another sugar
Haworth projection
a means od representing the orientation of substituent groups around a cyclic sugar molecule
hemiacetal
the family of organic componds formed via the reaction of one molecule of alochol with the aldehyde in the presence of an acid catayst;
hexose
a six carbon monosaccharide
ketose
a sugar that contains a ketone (carbonyl) group
lactose
a disaccharide composed of B-D-galactose and either A-or B-D-glucose in B(1–>4) glycosidic linkage; milk sugar
maltose
a disaccharide composed of a-D-glucose and a second glucose molecule in a
(1–>4)GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGE
monosaccharide
the simplist type of carbohydrate consisting of a single saccharide unit
pentose
a five carbon monosaccaride
polysaccharide
a large complex carbohydrate composed of long chains of monosaccharides
ribose
a five carbon monosaccharide that is a component of RNA and many coenzymes
saccharide
a sugar molecule
steroisomers
a pair of molecules having the same structural formula and bonding pattern but differing in the arrangement of the atoms in space.
sucrose
a disaccharide composed of a-D-glucose and B-D-fructose in (A1–>B2) glycosidic linkagel Table sugar
cholesterol
a 27 carbon steroid ring structure thar serves as the precursor of the steriod hormones
complex lipid
a lipid bonded to other types of molecules
diglyceride
the product of esterification of glycerol at two positions
emulsifying agent
A bipolar molecule that aids in the suspension of fats in the water
essential fatty acid
the fatty acids linolenic and linolenic acids that must be supplied in the diet because the because they cannot by synthesized by the body
esterfication
the formation of an ester in the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alochol
fatty acids
any member of the family of continous-chain carboxylic acids that generally contain four to twenty carbon atoms; the most concenterated source of energy used by the cell
fluid mosaic model
the model of membrane structure that describes the fluid nature of the lipid bilayer and the presence of numerous protiens embedded within the membrane
glyceride
a lipid that contains glycerol
HDL (High density lipids)
a plasma lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver
hydrogenation
a reaction in which hydrogen (H2)is added to a double or triple bond
lipid
member of a group of biological molecules of varying composition that are classified together on a basis of their solubility in nonpolar solvents
LDL –Low density lipids
plasma lipoprotein that carries cholesterol to peripheral tissues and help to regulate cholesterol levels in those tissues
monoglyceride
the product of the esterification of glycerol at one position
phosohoglyceride
a molecule with fatty acids esterified at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol and a phosphoryl group esterified at the C-3 position
phospholipid
a lipid containing a phosphoryl group
saponification
a reaction in which soap is produced; more generally, the hydrolysis of an ester by an aqueous base
saturated fatty acid
a long chain monocarboxylic acid in which each carbon of the chain is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
sphingolipid
a phospholipid that is derived from the amino alocol spingosine rather from glycerol
steroids
a lipid derivied from cholesterol and composed of one of the five-sided ring and three six-sided rings; the steriods include sex hormones and anti-inflammatory compounds
triglyceride
a molecule composed of glycerol esterified to three fatty acids
unsaturated fatty acid
A long-chain monocarboxylic acid having at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond
wax
a collection of lipids that are generally considered to be esters of long chain alochols
a-amino acid
the subunits of proteins composed od an a-carbon bonded to a carboxylate group, a pronated amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable R group
coagulation
the process of which protiens in solution are denatured and aggregate with one another to produce a solid
C-terminal amino acid
the amino acid in a peptide that has a free a-CO2- group; the last amino acid in a peptide
denaturation
the process by which the organized structure of a protien is disrupted, in resulting in a completely disorganized, nonfunctional form of the protien
enzyme
a protien that serves as a biological catalyst
essential amino acid
an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the body and must therore be supplied by the diet
glycoprotien
a protien bonded to sugar groups
a-helix
a right handed coiled secondary structure maintained by hydrogen bonds between the amide hydrogen of one amino acid and the carbonyl oxygen of an amino acid four residues away
hemoglobin
a major protien component of red blood cells; the function of this red, iron-containing protein is transport of oxygen
hydrophilic amino acid
“water loving” ; a polar or ionic amino acid that has a high affinity for water
hydrophobic amino acid
“water fearing” a non polar amino acid that perfers contact with other non polar molecules over contact with water
movement protien
a protien involved in any aspect of movement of an organization for instance actin and myosin in muscle tissue and flagellin that composes bacterial flagella
N-terminal amino acid
the amino acid in a peptide that has a free a-N+H3 group; the first amino acid of a peptide
peptide bond
the amide bond between 2 amino acids in a peptide chain
b-pleated sheet
a common secondary structure of a peptide chain that resembles the pleats of an oriental fan
primary structure
the linear sequence of amino acids in a protien chain determined by the genetic information of the gene for each protein
protien
a macromolecule whose primary structure is a linear sequence of a-amino acids and whose final structure results from folding of the chain into a specific three-dimensional strucure; proteins serve as catalysts, structural components, and nutritional elements for the cell
quarternary structure
aggregation of more than one folded peptide chain to yield a functional protein
secondary structure
folding of the primary structure of a protein into an a-helix or a b-pleated sheet, folding is maintained by hydrogen bonds between the amide hydrogen and the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond
tertiary structure
the globular; three -dimensional structure of a protien that results from the folding the regions of secondary structure this folding occurs spontaneously as a result of interactions of the side chains or R groups of the amino acids
active site
the cleft in the surface of an ezyme that is the site of substrate binding
allosteric enzyme
an ezyme that has an effector binding site and an active site; effector binding changes the shape of the active site, rendering it either active or inactive
coenzyme
an organic group required by some enzymes; it generally serves as a donor or acceptor of electrons or a functional group in a reaction
cofactor
an inorganic group, usually a metal ion, that must be bound to an apoenzyme to maintain the correct configeration of the active site
competitive inhibitor
a structural analog, a molecule that has a structure very similar to the natural subtrate of an enzyme, competes with the natural subbstrate for binding to the enzyme active site and inhibits the reaction
enzyme
a protien that serves as a biological catalyst
enzyme-substrate complex
a molecular aggregate formed when the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme
induced fit model
the theory of enzyme-substrate binding that assumes that the enzyme is a flexible molecule and that both the substrate and the enzyme change their shapes to accommodate one another as the enzyme-substrate complex forms
substrate
the reactant in a chemical reaction that binds to an enzyme active site and is converted to product
adenine
aminoacyl site (A site)
a pocket on the surface of ribsome that holds the aminoacyl tRNA during translation
anticodon
a sequence of three ribonucleotides on a tRNA that are complementary to a codon on the mRNA; codon-anticodon binding results in delivery of the correct amino acid to the site of protein synthesis
antiparallel strands
a term describibg the polarities of the two atrands of the DNA double helix; on one strand the sugar-phosphate backbone advances in 5′–>3′ direction, on the opposite, complementary strand the sugar-phosphate backbone advances in 3′–>5’direction
base pairs
a hydrogen-bonded pair of bases within the DNA double helix; the standard base pairs always involve purine and a pyrimidine ; in particular, adenine always base pairs with thymine and cytosine with guanine
central dogma
statement of the directional transfer of the genetic information in cells: DNA–>RNA–>Protein
chromosome
a piece of DNA that carries the genetic instructions, or genes, of an organism
codon
a group of 3 ribonucleotides of the mRNA that specifies the addition of a specific amino acid onto the growing peptide chain
complementary strand
the opposite strands of the double helix are hydrogen-bonded to one another such that adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine are always paried
cytosine
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA- the nucleic acid molecule that carries all the genetic information of an organism; the DNA molecule is a double helix composed of two strands, each of which is composed of phosphate groups, deoxyribose, and the nitrogenous base thymine, cytosine, adenine, and guanine
double helix
the spiral staircase-like structure of the DNA molecule characterized by two sugar-phosphate backbones wound around the outside and nitrogenous bases extending to the center
elongation
proteins that facilitate the elongation phase of translation
guanine
hydrogen bonds
the attractive force between a hydrogen atom convalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom and another atom containing an unshaped pair of electrons
initiation
proteins that are required for formation of the translation initation complex, which is composed of the large and small ribosomal subunits, the mRNA, and the initiator tRNA, methionyl tRNA
messenger RNA
an RNA species produced by transcription and that specifies the amino acid sequence for a protein
nucleotide
a molecule composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and one, two or three phosphoryl groups
peptide bond
the amide bond between two amino acids in a peptide chain
peptidyl site (p site)
a pocket on the surface of the ribsome that holds the tRNA bound to the growing peptide chain
phosphodiester bond
protein synthesis
purine
a family of nitrogenous bases that are components of DNA and RNA and consists of a six-sided ring fused to a five-sided ring; the common purines in nucleic acids are adenine and guanine
pyrimidine
release factor
a protein that binds to the termination codon in the empty A-site of the ribsome and causes the peptidyl transferanse to hydrolyze the bond between the peptide and the peptidyl tRNA
replication
the region of a DNA molecule where DNA replication always begin
ribonucleic acid
RNA- single stranded nuceic acid molecules that are composed of phosphoryl groups, ribose, and the nitrogenous bases uracil, cytosine, adenine, and guanine
ribsome
a 5 carbon monosaccharide that is a component of RNA and many coenzymes
termination codon
a triplet of ribonucleotides with no corresponding anticodon on a tRNA; as a result, translation will end, because there is no amino acid to transfer to the peptide chain
thymine
transcription
the synthesis RNA from a DNA template
transfer RNA
small RNAs that bind to a specific amino acid at 3’end and mediate its addition at the appropriate site in a growing peptide chain; accomplished by recognition of the correct codon on the mRNA by the complementary anticodon on the tRNA
translation
the synthesis of a protein from the genetic code carried on the mRNA
uracil
acetyl coenzyme A
molecule composed of coenzyme A and an acetyl group; the intermediate that provides acetyl groups for complete oxidation by aerobic respiration
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a nucleotide composed of the purine adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphoryl groups; THE PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE AND TRANSPORT MOLECULE USED BY THE CELLS IN CELLULAR METABOLISM
aerobic respiration
the oxygen-requiring, degradation of food molecules and production of ATP
anabolism
all of the cellular energy requiring bio synthetic pathways
ATP synthase
the multiprotein complex within the mitochondrial membrane that uses the energy of the proton (H+) gradient to produce ATP
catabolism
the degradation of fuel molecules and production of ATP for cellular functions
citric acid cycle (also known as the Kreb Cycle)
the cuclic biochemical pathway that is the final stage of degradation of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids. It results in the complete oxidation of acetyl groups derived from these dietary fuels
coenzyme A
a molecule derived from ATP and the vitamin pantothenic acid; coenzyme A functions in the tansfer of acetyl groups in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
cristae
the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
electron transport system (ETS)
the series of electron transport protein embedded in the inner mitrochondrial membrane that accept high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 and transfer them in stepwise fashion to molecular oxygen
glycolysis
the enymatic pathway that converts a glucose molecule into 2 molecules of pyruvate; this anaerobic process generates a net energy yield of two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH
mitrochondria
the cellular power plants in which reactions of the citric acid cycle; the electron transport system, and the ATP synthase function to produce ATP
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
a molecule synthesized from the vitamin niacin and the nucleotide ATP and that serves as a carrier of hydride anions; a coenzyme that is an oxidizing agent used in a variety of metabolic process
nucleotide
a molecule composed of a nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar, 1, 2, 3 phosphoryl groups
oxidative phosphorylation
production of ATP using the energy of electrons harvested during biological oxidation-reduction reactions
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