chemistry vocab 10

absolute zero
zero on the Kelvin scale, which represents the lowest possible theoretical temperature; atoms are all in the lowest possible energy state
amorphous solid
a substance with a haphazard, disjointed, and incomplete crystal lattice
boiling point
the temperature of a liquid where its vapor pressure equals the pressure exerted on its surface
Brownian motion
the constant, random motion of tiny chunks of matter
condensation
the process where gaseous particles come together, that is, condense, to form a liquid or sometimes a solid
crystal lattice
the three-dimensional arrangement repeated throughout a solid
deposition
the energy-releasing process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid
diffusion
the process by which a gas enters a container and fills it, or when the particles of two gases or liquids mix together
evaporation
the process by which particles of a liquid form a gas by escaping from the liquid surface
freezing point
the temperature of a liquid when it becomes a crystal lattice
gas
a flowing, compressible substance with no definite volume or shape
heat of fusion
the energy released as one kilogram of a substance solidifies at its freezing point
heat of vaporization
the energy absorbed when one kilogram of a liquid vaporizes at its normal boiling point
ideal gas
a gas in which the particles undergo elastic collisions
joule
the SI unit of energy; the energy required to lift a one-newton weight one meter against the force of gravity
kelvin (K)
a division on the Kelvin scale; the SI unit of temperature
Kelvin scale
the temperature scale defined so that temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles and so that zero on the scale corresponds to zero kinetic energy
kinetic theory
the theory that states that submicroscopic particles of all matter are in constant, random motion
liquid
a flowing substance with a definite volume but an indefinite shape
liquid crystal
a material that loses its rigid organization in only one or two dimensions when it melts
melting point
the temperature of a solid when its crystal lattice begins to break apart
plasma
an ionized gas
pressure
the force acting on a unit area of a surface
solid
a substance in which the particles occupy fixed positions in a well-defined, three-dimensional arrangement
sublimation
the process by which particles of a solid escape from its surface and form a gas
temperature
the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material
vapor pressure
the pressure of a substance in equilibrium with its liquid
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