CHEMISTRY VOCAB

chemical change
any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
physical change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
endothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
exothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with the liberation of heat
substance
the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists
mixture
a collection containing a variety of sorts of things
compound
a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
element
a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances
homogeneous
all of the same or similar kind or nature
heterogeneous
consisting of elements not of the same kind or nature
Thomson
English physicist who experimented with the conduction of electricity through gases and who discovered the electron and determined its charge and mass
Dalton
(chemistry) law stating that when two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation
ATOMIC THEORY
Rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom
Atomic #
the order of an element in Mendeleyev’s table of the elements; equal to the number of protons in the nucleus or electrons in the neutral state of an atom of an element
Mass #
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Atomic Mass
the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units
Protons
equivalent to atomic number
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
Neutrons
mass – protons(isotopes)
an elementary particle with zero charge
Electrons
Electrons are the smallest of the particles that make up an atom, and they carry a negative charge.
Isotopes
atom with same atomic number, different number of neutrons
ions
cation and anions an atom with a charge
energy
forceful exertion
frequency
the number of occurrences within a given time period
orbital
of or relating to an orbit
para magnetic
of or relating to a paramagnet[7]
diamagnetic
relating to or exhibiting diamagnetism; slightly repelled by a magnet [7L]
Bohr Model
a theory of atomic structure that combined Rutherford’s model with the quantum theory; electrons orbiting a nucleus can only be in certain stationary energy states and light is emitted when electrons jump from one energy state to another
isoelectronic
S-2(18 electrons) = Ar(18 electrons)
S+2(14 electrons)= Si(14 electrons)
Aufbau Principle
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
(quantum theory) the theory that it is impossible to measure both energy and time (or position and momentum) completely accurately at the same time
Hund’s Rule
Pauli exclusion Principle
no two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
Ground State
(physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle
Excited State
in an aroused state moving to the next energy level before the previous one is completed
Sub levels (S)
Sub-levels(P)
Sub-levels(D)
Sub level(F)
energy levels
a definite stable energy that a physical system can have
electron configuration
properties of metals and nonmetals
properties of ionic and covalent
bond formation energy
FORM = RELEASE ENERGY
BREAK = ABSORB ENERGY
polarity of bonds
0.0-0.5 = Non-Polar
0.5-1.7 =Polar
1.7+ = Ionic/Non-Covalent
polarity of molecule
crazy shape = polar
symmetrical = nonpolar
lewis structures
MASS
the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field
PERCENT COMPOSITION
PERCENT HYDRATE
BALANCING EQUATIONS
MOLE TO MOLE RATIOS
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