Chemistry Vocab

absolute zero
coldest possible temperature, 0 degrees Kelvin, all motion stops
acid anhydride
nonmetal oxide
activated complex
an intermediate between reactants and products where bonds are breaking and bonds are forming. it is the least stable point on an energy diagram
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
alkali
column 1
alkaline earth
column 2
allotropes
different forms of the same element (O2, O3 [oxygen and ozone]) (graphite, diamond, coal [carbon])
alloy
mixture of metals (bronze, brass)
alpha
first letter in the greek alphabet; mass=4 charge=2 symbol:a (or He)
amphoteric
can act as either an acid or a base
anode
site of oxidation in an electrochemical cell
aqueous
dissolved in water
arrhenius acid
something that produces H+ ions when you put it in water
arrhenius base
something that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions when you put it in water
atmosphere
unit of pressure
atomic mass
sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
atomic mass unit
1/12th of a carbon 12 atom
atomic number
the number of protons inside the nucleus equal to the number of electrons outside the nucleus
basic anhydride
metal oxide
beta particle
electrons coming out of the nucleus, mass=0 charge=-1 symbol: B
binary compound
2 elements bonded together
bright line spectrum
colors given off when an electron falls from an excited state to a ground state
bronsted-lowry acid
donates H+ (protons)
bronsted-lowry base
accepts H+ (protons)
buffer
a solution that resists change in pH. It is made from a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt.
catalyst
speeds up a process but you get it back unaltered at the end
cathode
side of reduction in an electrochemical cell
celsius scale
based on the freezing point (0 degrees) and boiling point (100 degrees) of water
compound
2 or more elements bonded together
control rods
steel rods laced with cadmium and boron; used to absorb neutrons
coolant
cools down a nuclear reactor
covalent bonds
sharing electrons; electronegativity difference of less than 1.7
critical mass
the minimum amount of fissionable material that will sustain a chain reaction
density
mass/volume
diatomic elements
H2, N2, O2, and group 17
distillation
separating elements based on their boiling points
ductile
can be drawn into a wire
electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity because it contains ions
electron
negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus with a mass near 0
electronegativity
attraction for electrons on a scale of 0-4
element
basic building block of matter that cant be broken down by ordinary chemical means
empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of elements in a compound (CH4–> 1:4, H2O–>2:1)
endothermic
absorbing energy
enthalpy
heat
entropy
chaos
equilibrium
the rate of the forward reaction = the rate of the reverse reaction
esterification
alcohol+organic acid–>water+ester
excited state
not in the order on the periodic table
exothermic
releasing energy
fermentation
reaction that produces CO2 and ethyl alcohol
fission
splitting the atom
fusion
combining light nuclei to make a heavier nucleus
fusion
melting
galvanize
to coat something with zinc to prevent rusting
gamma rays
high energy xrays (no mass no charge)
gas
no definite shape no definite volume
ground state
in the order on the periodic table
group
vertical columns on the periodic table
halflife
the amount of time it takes for half of a radioactive isotope to decay
halogen
group 17
heavy water
water made with deuterium instead of hydrogen
heterogeneous
not uniform
homogeneous
uniform
ideal gas
actual atoms dont take up any space and they have no attraction for each other; high temperature, low pressure
indicator
substance that changes color depending on the pH
inert gas
column 18
ion
charged particle
ionic bond
transfer of electrons, electronegativity difference greater than 1.7
ionization energy
the energy it takes to remove an electron
isomer
same molecular formula, different structure
isotopes
same atomic number, different atomic mass
kilo
one thousand
liquid
no definite shape, definite volume
malleable
can be hammered into shape
metal
lose electrons, charge goes up
metallic bond
sea of mobile electrons
metalloid
on the staircase, properties of metals and nonmetals
mixture
2 or more things put together but not bonded
moderator
slows down neutrons, most common are graphite and heavy water
mol
22.4 L at STP
mol
6.02*10^23
mol
grams/molecular mass
molarity
mols/liters
network
hardest known substances (diamond, quartz)
neutralization
acid + base –> salt + water
neutron
a particle in the nucleus with a mass of 1 and no charge
nonmetal
gain electrons and the charge decreases
nonpolar
symmetrical
orbital
a region of space in an atom where electrons can most probably be found, holding a maximum of 2 electrons
organic chemistry
the study of carbon
oxidation
loss of electrons, charge goes up
pH
-log[H+]
period
horizontal rows corresponding to energy levels
periodic law
properties of elements are based on atomic number
polar
nonsymmetrical
positron
positive electron coming out of the nucleus, charge +1, mass 0 (B)
pressure
force of collision of the atoms in molecules
proton
positively charged particle in the nucleus with a mass of 1
reduction
gaining electrons, the charge goes down
salt bridge
allows the flow of ions in an electrochemical cell
saponification
produces soap and glycerin
saturated
contains all single bonds
saturated
maximum amount of something that will dissolve at a certain temperature
solid
definite shape, definite volume
stp
standard temperature and pressure
sublimation
changing from a solid to a gas with no liquid phase (dry ice, iodine)
temperature
average kinetic energy
tincture
a solution made with alcohol instead of water
transition element
D-block/compounds with colors
transmutation
changing one element into another
unsaturated
contains double or triple bonds
unsaturated
not the maximum amount dissolved
valence
outermost energy level
volatile
evaporates easily
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