Substance that cannot be
chemically broken down into simpler substances.
Sulfate Ion
SO4, 2- Charge, Oxyanion
Nitrate Ion
NO3, 1- Charge, Oxyanion
Phosphate Ion
PO4 3- Charge, Oxyanion
Ca, 2+ Charge
Na, 1+ Charge
K, 1+ Charge
Li, 1+ Charge
Rb, 1+ Charge
Be, 2+ Charge
Mg, 2+ Charge
Sr, 2+ Charge
Ba, 2+ Charge
F, 1- Charge, Diatomic Gas
Cl, 1- Charge, Diatomic Gas
Br, 1- Charge, Diatomic Gas
H, 1+ Charge, Diatomic
O, 2- Charge, Diatomic
N, 3- Charge, Diatomic
P, 3- Charge,
S, 2- Charge, Diatomic
Br, 1- Charge, Diatomic
I, 1- Charge, Diatomic
Significant Figures
Multiplication and Division Rule
The result carries the
same number of significant figures as the factor with the fewest significant figures.
Significant Figures
Adding and Subtracting Rule
The result carries the same number of decimal places as the quantity with the fewest decimal places.
refers to how close the
measured value is to the actual value.
refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are
Chemical Formula
Formula with its elements and shows the number of each element
Empirical Formula
Formula of a chemical with the lowest ratio of each element
Ionic Bond
Between Metal and Nonmetal
Covalent Bond
Bond between two or more nonmetals, also called a Molecule
Molecular Element
Molecule of a single type of atom
O=O or H-H
Molecular or Ionic, H2O or NACL
Atomic Elements
Exist in nature with single atom as their basic units
Covalent Compound
Consists of two or more covalently bonded nonmetals, H2O CO2, PO3
Ionic Compound
Composed of cation and anion bound together by Ionic bonds
NaCl, CaCl2, Al2O3
Molecular Compound and how to name them
Made from two or more nonmetals that are covalently bonded
Name first element with number prefix, and name second element with prefix and end with “ide”
Metal Ions and naming them
Monoatomic cations, and named simply by their name, followed by “ion”
Nonmetal Ions and naming them
Normally form monoatomic anions
Name the element, and end it with “ide”
Iron (FE) Oxidation states
+2 and +3 or II and III
Lead (PB) Oxidation states
+2 and +4, II and IV
Binary Acid and naming them
Compounds composed of H with another nonmetal
Hydro followed by the name of the element ending with “ic” and the word “acid”
Substance that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
Oxyacid and names
Contain Oxygen in addition to Hydrogen and another nonmetal
Starting = ___ic
one O more = per__ic
one O less = ___ous
two O less = hypo__ous
Oxyanions names
Contain oxygen with nonmetal, but without a hydrogen
Starting = ___ate
one O more = per__ate
one O less = ___ite
two O less = hypo___ite
Polyprotic Acids
Acids that produce multiple protons (H+)
written in the formula as H2O, with the prefix number
Writing Ionic compounds containing a polyatomic ion
Write the unmodified name of the cation, then write the name of the ion, DO NOT USE PREFIXES
Carbonate Ion
CO3 2- Charge, Oxyanion
Sulfite Ion
SO3 2- Charge, Oxyanion
Nitrite Ion
NO2 1- Charge, Oxyanion
Hydroxide Ion
OH 1- Charge, Oxyanion
Hydrogen Carbonate Ion
HCO3 1- Charge, Acid Anion
Hydrogen Sulfide Ion
HS 1- Charge, Acid Anion
Hydrogen Sulfate Ion
HSO4 1- Charge, Acid Anion
Hydrogen Sulfite Ion
HSO3 1- Charge, Acid Anion
Dihydrogen Phosphate Ion
H2PO4 1- Charge, Acid Anion
Chromium(II) Ion
Cr 2+
Manganese(II) Ion
Mn 2+
Nickel(II) Ion
Ni 2+
Copper(II) Ion
Cu 2+
Zinc Ion
Zn 2+
Cadmium Ion
Cd 2+
Mercury(I) Ion
Hg_2 2+
Mercury(II) Ion
Hg 2+
Formula Mass/Molecular Mass
Sum of all individual masses making up the formula unit
Molar Mass
The mass in grams of 1 mol of its molecules or formula units
Numerically equivalent to its formula mass with the unit being -gram per mole- rather than amu
Mass percent of a formula’s element
x (molar mass of element)
= ————————– X 100
(molar mass of formula)

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