Chemistry- Chapter 1 Review

What is a chemical in the Earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the radiation that could damage things on Earth?
ozone
What is any substance with a definite composition?
chemical
What does ozone consist of?
three particles of oxygen (O3)
What are the 5 layers of the atmosphere from the Earth upward?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
About 90% of ozone is located in which layer of the atmosphere?
stratosphere
In what layer of the atmosphere contains the air we breathe, all the clouds, where airplanes fly, and all weather?
troposphere
What causes oxygen gas to break down into two individual particles of oxygen?
ultraviolent radiation
What do individual oxygen particles combine with to form ozone, which consists of 3 particles of oxygen?
oxygen gas
What is the thinning of the ozone layer called?
the ozone hole
What is the ozone hole more like than an actual hole?
thinning of a sock
What does CFC stand for?
Chlorofluorocarbon
What is Clorofluorocarbon composed of?
chlorine, fluorine, and carbon
What are CFC’s used for?
coolants, plastic foams, and propellants in spray cans
Are all CFC’s synthetic chemicals?
yes
Do CFC’s usually react readily with other chemicals?
no
Were CFC’s developed as replacements for toxic refrigerants?
yes
What is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes?
chemistry
What has mass and takes up space?
matter
What is the amount of matter in an object?
mass
Does mass change with location?
no
What is the gravitational pull on matter?
weight
Does weight change with location?
yes
Would a person that weighs 75kg on the moon weigh more, less, or the same?
less
Would a person whose mass was 75kg more, less, or the same mass on the moon?
the same
Since people can easily be seen without a microscope, what are they termed?
macroscopic
Atoms are very small and cannot be see with even the most powerful microscopes. What are they termed?
submicroscopic
What is the study of matter and processes in living things?
bichemistry
What is the study of carbon containing chemicals?
organic chemistry
What is the study of components and composition of substances?
analytical chemistry
What is the study of matter that does not usually contain carbon?
inorganic chemistry
What is the study of behavior and changes of matter and related energy changes?
physical chemistry
Which branch of chemistry deals with reaction rates?
physical chemistry
Which branch of chemistry deals with minerals, metals and nonmetals, and semiconductors?
inorganic chemistry
Which branch of chemistry deals with metabolism and fermentation?
biochemistry
Which branch of chemistry deals with pharmaceuticals and plastics?
organic chemistry
Which branch of chemistry deals with food nutrients and quality control?
analytical chemistry
What are the steps of the scientific method?
1. Define the problem
2. collect background information
3. form a hypothesis
4. test the hypothesis in an experiments
5. make and record observations
6. draw conclusions and predict
What is the first step of the scientific method?
define the problem
What is the second step in the scientific method?
collect background information
What is the third step of the scientific method?
form a hypothesis
What is the fourth step of the scientific method?
test the hypothesis in experiments
What is the fifth step of the scientific method?
make and record obervations
What is the sixth step of the scientific method?
draw conclusions and predict
What is another term for the scientific method?
systematic approach to problem solving
What kind of data is numerical information given in?
quantitative data
What type of data/info is related to the five senses (look, feel, sound, taste, or smell)?
qualitative
What is a tentative explanation for an observation or educated guess that can be tested by an experiment?
hypothesis
What is something that can change or be changed?
variable
What is the variable in an experiment that changes in response to the controlled variable called?
dependent variable
What axis is the dependent variable plotted on?
y-axis
What is the variable that is changed or controlled by the experimenter?
independent variable
Where is the independent variable plotted?
x-axis
What is a standard for comparison in an experiment?
control
What is a visual, verbal, and/or mathematical explanation of experimental data called?
model
What states a conclusion that occurs consistently over time (statement doesn’t tell why)?
scientific law
What is a broad principle of nature supported over time (tells why and may be changed over time)?
theory
What is research undertaken to solve a specific problem?
applied research
What is the act of gaining knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself?
pure research
Who discovered the antibiotic penicillin?
Alexander Fleming
What year did Alexander Fleming discover penicillin?
1928
Technically, what is the antibiotic penicillin?
a bacteria killing mold called penicillum notatum
What is the practical use of science?
technology
Who developed the theory of relativity?
Albert Einstein
What is the formula for relativity?
e=mc2
What does e=mc2 stand for?
energy=mass x speed of light squared
What is the value and units for speed of light?
3 x 10^3 m/s
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
What does the ATP molecule store and release?
energy
Are breathing and respiration the same thing?
no
What should you always wear in a lab situation?
goggles
What is the chemical reaction that occurs in plants to make their own food?
photosynthesis
What contains carbon with a few exceptions?
organic compounds
What contains carbon and hydrogen only?
hydrocarbons
What are hydrocarbons with only single bonds between atoms?
alkanes
What is methane?
CH4
What is fuel for cooking and heating?
propane
What is used in small lighters and some torches?
butane
Count to ten in organic chemistry
meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hep, oct, non, dec
What is the formula for determining ALKANES?
CnH2n+2
What are hydrocarbons that contain one or more DOUBLE covalent bonds between atoms?
Alkenes
What is the formula for determining ALKENES?
CnH2n
What are hydrocarbons with one or more TRIPLE bonds between carbon atoms in a chain?
Alkynes
What is the formula for determining ALKYNES?
CnH2n-2
What is the most common alkyne?
ethyne
What’s another term for ethyne?
acetylene
What are functional groups?
atom or group of atoms that always react in a certain way (change the physical and chemical properties of the parent hydrocarbon)
What changes the physical and chemical properties of the parent hydrocarbon?
functional groups
What do all alcohols have?
a hydroxyl functional group
(-OH)
What do amines have?
an amino group
(-NH2)
What do carboxylic acids have?
the carboxyl group
(-COOH)
What is the carbonyl group?
(-C=O)
What are another functional group?
Esters
What does each functional group produce?
a unique odor
x

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