Chemistry- Chapter 2

Levels of Chemical Organization

1) Matter

2) Elements

3) Molecules

4) Compound

Matter
Anything with mass and takes up space
Element
A Pure substance: made up of only one kind of atom. (H)
Molecule
A group of the same ataoms bound together in a group
Compound
A group of two or more different types of atoms bonded together. (H20) 3/4 the body weight.
Parts of an Atom

Smallest unit of matter

 

Made up of the following:

 

Nucleus- central core of an atom and conains subatomic particles.

 

Proton– Positively charged particle in the nucleus

 

Nuetron– uncharged particles in the nucleus.

Atomic

Number

Number of protons in nucleus

Atomic

Mass

Number of protons and nuetron in the nucleus combined.

Atom

Energy

Levels

Orbital regions surrounding atomic nucleus that contain electrons.

 

Electron- negatively charged particle found surrounding the nucleus.

 

Each energy level can hold a maximum number of electrons.

 

1st Level- 2 Electrons

2nd Level- 8 Electrons- same for all other levels.

Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonds form to make atoms more stable by making their outer energy levels full.

 

-Atoms may share electrons, donate electrons, or borrow electrons them to become stable.

 

-To seperate a compound requires a chemical raction (Test Question)

Ions

Elements that carry an electrical charge.

 

This inclused cations, anions, and electrolytes.

Cation
Positively Charged ion.
Anion
Negatively Charged ion
Electrolytes
Form ions when dissolved in water. Only electrolytes can ionize.
NaCl

Sodium Chloride

 

-Dissolved in H20

Types of

Chemical Bonds

Ionic

Covalent

Hydrogen

Ionic Chemical Bond
Caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms.
Covalent Chemical Bond
Electrons are shared by the outer shells of atoms. Covalent bonds are strong.
Hydrogen Chemical Bonding
Positive and negative charges are weakly attracted to form a bond.
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out