chemisty exam

 

 

 

Absolute Zero

 

 

 

 -273 degrees

Acid

 

 

 

a substance that produces hydrogen ions in aqueous soloution

 Addition polymerization

 

 

a reaction in which monomers simply ”add together” to form polymers

 

 

 

Absolute boiling

 

 

 

373 degrees

 

 

 

Alkane

 

 

 saturated hydrocarbon wuth the general formula CnH2n + 2

Alkene

 

 

an unsatuarted hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond

CnH2n

 Alkyne

 

 

 

an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon triple bond

Anion

 

 

 

a negative ion

 Aqueous solution

 

 

a solution in which water is the dissolving

medium os solvent

 Atom

 

 

 

the fundermental unit in which elements

are composed

Atomic mass

 

 

a small unit of mass equal to

1.66×10 -24

Avagadro’s number

;

;

;

6.022×10 23

;Base

;

;

a substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

;

;

Binary ionic

compound I

;

;

when a metal reacts with a non metal

Binary ionic

compound II

;

;

contains a metal can can form more than one type of cation usually a transition metal resulting in using a roman numeral to determine the compound

Binary ionic

copmpound III

;

;

;

when a non metal combines with a non metal

Bond energy

;

;

the energy required to break a

given chemical bond

Buffered solution

;

;

a solution where ther is a presence of a weak acid and its conjugated base

;Cation

;

;

a positive ion

Chemical change

t

;

he change of substance inot othhe substances through reorganisation of the atoms

Compound

;

;

a substance with constend composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical process

Conjugated base

;

what remains of an acid molecule after a

proton is lost

Conjugated acid

;

;

the species formed;when a proton is

added to a base

conjugated

acid-base pair

;

;

two species related to each other by donating and accepting of a single

Covalent bonding

a type of bonding which atoms share electrons

Crystalline solid

a solid characterized by the regular arragngment of its components bonding

Density

;

a property of matter representing the mass oer unit; volume

Diatomic molecule

;

;

a molecule composed of two atoms

Dipole-Dipole

attraction

;

the attrative force resulting when polar molecules line up such that the positive and negative ends are close to each other

Dipole moment

;

;

a property of a molecule whereby the charge distribution can be represented by a centre of positive charge and a centre of negative charge

Double bond

;

;

a bond which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

;Electron

a negatively charged particle that ocupies the space around the nucleus of an atom

Electronegativity

;

;

the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to its self

Element

;

;

a substance that can not be created nor distoyed by physical or chemical means

;

Exothermic process

;

;

a process in which energy (as heat) flows out of the system into the surroundings

Endothermic

a process in which energy (as heat) flows from the surroundings; into the system

;Matter

;

;

solid, liqid or a gas

Heterogeneous

;

;

a mixture that has different properties in different regions of the mixure

eg rocks in water

Homogeneous

;

;

a mixture that is the same throughout

Hydrogen bonding

;

;

usually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom

Intermolecular forces

;

;

relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules

Intramolecular forces

;

;

;

interactions that occurwithin a given molecule

;Ion

;

;

an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge

Ionic bonding

;

;

;

the attraction between oppositely charged ions

Ionic compound

;

;

a compound that results when a metal reacts with a non metal to form cations and anions

;ionizing energy

;

;

the quantity of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion

Isotopes

;

;

atoms of the same element (the same number of protons) taht have different numbers of neutrons. they have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers

Kinetic energy

;

;

;

energy due to the motion of an object

Kinetic molecular theory

;

;

a model that assumes that an ideal gas is composed of tiny particles (molecules) in constent motion

Law of constent composition

;

;

a given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass

London dispersion forces

;

;

the relatively weak forces which exsit among noble gas atoms and non polar molecules, that involve an accidental dipole that includes a momentary dipole in a neighbour

Lone pair

;

;

an electron that is localized on a given atom

(lewis structuer)

Molarity

;

;

;

moles of solute per volume of solution in liters

Molar mass

;

;

the mass in grams of one mole of a compound

Natural law

;

;

a statement that expresses generally observed behaviour

Neutron

;

;

a particle in the atomic nucleus with a mass approximately equal to that of a proton but has no charge

;Nucleus

;

;

the small dense centre of a positive charge in an atom

Polar covalent bond

;

;

a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongley than the other

;

;

Polymer

;

;

a large, usually chain-like molecule built from many samll molecules (monomers)

Proton

;

;

;

;positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus;

Scientific method

;

;

a process of studying natural phenomena that involves making observations forming laws and theories, and testing theories by exerimentation

Single bond

;

;

a bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons

;

;

Solution

;

;

;

a homogeneous mixture

Theroy

(model)

;

;

a set of assumptions put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behaviour of matter

Triple bonds

;

;

a bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons

Observation

;

;

something that ccan be witness and recorded

Hypothesis

;

;

agrees with the various observation

Qualitative

;

;

involves no number

the chemistry book is heavy

Quantitative

;

;

involves a number

the chemisrty book is 3kg

Density

;

;

mass

volume

Physical property

;

;

odur, colour,volume,state (solid,liquid and gas)

;

Chemical property

;

;

a change in the overall apperance of a substance

eg wood burning leaving a reidue of ash

;

Allotropes

;

;

;

different forms of a given element

Ionic bonding

;

;

closley packes oppositely charged ions

x

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