CHM 1020 Final

What is the value of a mole (mol)?
6.022 x 10^23
Who was the mole named after?
Amadeo Avogadro
What is the atomic mass unit?
1/12 of the mass of carbon-12
What is molar mass?
The mass of 1 mol of atoms of an element
Covert from moles to grams by:
Multiply # moles by # molar mass
Convert from grams to moles by:
Divide # grams by # molar mass
Convert grams to # of atoms by:
Divide # grams by molar mass then multiply by 6.022 x 10^23
Convert from molecules to grams by:
Divide # molecules by 1 mol, then multiply by molar mass
Convert grams of compound to grams of element by:
Divide by total mass and multiply by mass of target element
Mass percent composition
Element’s percentage of the total mass of compound
Calculate mass percent by:
Divide target element by total compound in grams
Convert grams of element to grams of compound by:
Multiply initial element (g) by 100/(percentage)
Calculate empirical formula by:
Divide experimental mass of each element by molar mass of that element
Calculate empirical formula from reaction data by:
Subtracting given element mass from total compound mass
n = ?
Molar mass(usually bigger number) / empirical formula molar mass
Compounds containing what are soluble?
Li, Na, K, NH4, NO3, C2H3O2
Compounds that may be soluble (Cl, Br, I)
Cannot contain Ag, Hg2, Pb
Compounds that may be soluble (SO4)
Cannot contain Sr, Ba, Pb, Ca
Slightly soluble if:
Contains OH; but not Li, Na, K, NH4; but does have Ca, Sr, Ba
What is a molecular equation?
Shows complete, neutral formulas for every compound in a reaction
What is a complete ionic equation?
Shows all of the species as they are actually present in the solution
What is a net ionic equation?
Shows only the species that actually participate in the reaction
What are the characteristics of oxidation-reduction reactions?
Involve transfer of electrons
What does OIL RIG stand for?
Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain
What is the law of constant composition?
All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their corresponding elements.
NH4
Ammonium
C2H3O2
Acetate
Mg(NO3)2?
Magnesium nitrate
What is an empirical formula?
It gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound.
Atomic elements are:
Single atoms of an element
Molecular elements are:
(Usually) doubled atoms of an element
Molecular compounds are:
Compounds formed from two or more nonmetals. (H2O)
Ionic compounds are:
Compounds that contain one or more cations paired with one or more anions. (NaCl)
Cation is:
Positively charged ions
Anions are:
Negatively charged ions
What is an ion?
It makes up the electric charge of an atom.
You can assume a compound is ionic when:
You have a metal and one or more nonmetals together in a chemical formula
What is a Type I metal?
It does have a charge that varies from one compound to another
What is a Type II metal?
It has a charge that differs in different compounds
Binary compounds are:
Those that contain only two different elements and end with -ide
SO3
Sulfite
SO4
Sulfate
CO3
Carbonate
NO3
Nitrate
NO2
Nitrite
HCl
Hydrochloric acid
KOH
Potassium hydroxide
HNO3
Nitric acid
NaOH
Sodium hydroxide
NaNO3
Sodium nitrate