CHM 103 (ch. 1-3)

chemistry
the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
scientific law
brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones
scientific theory
a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does but why
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
energy
capacity to do work
kinetic energy
energy associated with motion
potential energy
energy associated with position or composition
thermal energy
energy associated with the temperature of an object
law of conservation of mass
in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed
law of multiple proportions
John Dalton

when two elements (A & B) form two different compounds, the masses of element B that combine with 1g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers

radioactivity
the emission of small energetic particles from the core of certain unstable atoms
periodic law
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
molar mass
the value of an element’s molar mass in grams per mole is numerically equal to the element’s atomic mass in atomic mass units
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