CHM 333 Quiz 11.21

Amino acids that are no longer needed in the body are degraded and funneled into the TCA cycle by ___ and ___.
Acetyl CoA and pyruvate
The fatty acids produced through hydrolysis of triacyglycerol are metabolized inside the mitochondria and eventually enter the TCA cycle via ____.
Acetyl CoA
In the course of the TCA cycle, oxidation reactions produce ____.
Electron rich compounds (FADH2, NADH/H+)
Electron transport chain leads to ___, which produces ATP.
Oxidative phosphorylation
The inner/outer mitochondrial membrane is permeable to small molecules.
Outer
The inner mitochondrial membrane is highly folded and forms a boudary to the interior fluid called the ____.
Matrix
Components of mitochondrial matrix
Mitochondrial DNA and transcription/translation machinery
Mitochondria imports specific proteins from the ____.
Cytosol
Proteins for TCA cycle are found in the ____.
Mitochondrial matrix
The _____ complex bridges glycolysis and the TCA cycle.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate is transported from the cytosol to mitochondria by ____.
Pyruvate translocase
During the TCA cycle, pyruvate is combusted, producing ____.
CO2
Ultimately, the electrons from the TCA cycle are transferred to ____.
O2, producing H2O
3 enzymes in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

E1 – pyruvate dehydrogenase

E2 – dihydrolipoyl transacetylase

E3 – dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase

Overall reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Pyruvate + HS-CoA –> Acetyl CoA and CO2
Coenzymes involved in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
TPP, Lipomide, CoASH, FAD, NAD+
Step 1 in the TCA cycle (Citrate sythase) is a ___ reaction.
Condensation
In step 2 of the TCA cycle (aconitase) is a ____ reaction.
non-hydrolytic cleavage
In the aconitase reaction, how is isocitrate formed from citrate?
Changing the position of the -OH group
Step 3 of the TCA cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction) is a _____ reaction.
Redox and non-hydrolytic cleavage
Step 4 of the TCA cycle (a-ketogluterate dehydrogenase complex) is a
The Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex connects to the TCA cycle via ____.
Acetyl CoA
Step 5 of the TCA cycle (Succinyl CoA Synthetase) is a coupled reaction between ___ and ___.
hydrolysis of thioester bond in succinyl-CoA and addition of a phosphate to GDP to synthesize GTP
Step 6 of the TCA cycle is succinate dehydrogenase complex. This involves the reduction of succinate to ____.
fumarate
Step 7 of the TCA cycle is fumarase, which adds to the double bond in ____.
Water
Step 8 in the TCA cycle is Malate dehydrogenase, which oxidizes ____ and involves a ____ reaction.
Malate, redox
One TCA cycle releases ___ (#) CO2, thus there is complete oxidation of ___(#) Carbons during the cycle.
2, 2
How is the energy released from the redox reactions int he TCA cycle conserved?
Reduction of 3 NAD+ and 1 FAD and phosphorylation of GDP.
Initiation of the TCA cycle requires _____ (compound).
Oxaloacetate
Regulation of the TCA cycle involves responses to ____ surplus and need.
Energy
Regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex control teh amount of ____ added to the TCA cycle.
Acetyl CoA
The electron transport chain consists of sequential ___ reactions.
Redox
During electron transport, movement of electrons through the system is coupled to the unidirectional release of ___ into the space between the outer and inner mitochondrial membrane.
Protons
The protons released during the electron transport chain are pumped back into the matrix through ____.
ATP synthetase
Energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP is produced from…
The pumping of electrons back into the mitochondrial matrix.
NAD & FAD are produced when?
During the TCA cycle and during breakdown of fatty acids.
Coenzyme Q10 is also known as ___. The 10 stands for?
Ubiquinone; the number of isoprenyl units
The heme group is cytochrom a and c have ____, the heme group in cytochrome b and c have ____.
copper, iron
Flow of electrons in electron transport chain

NADH –> Complex 1 –> Q –> Complex 3 –> cytc –> Complex 4 –> O2

 

Complex 2 also leads to Q

Proteins in complex 1
FMN and Fe-S
Complex __(#) is for entry of electrons from NADH/H+.
1
Complex __ is for transfer of electrons from FADH2 produced during the TCA cycle.
2
Complex __ is for transfer of electrons from FADH2 produced during the breakdown of fatty acids.
2′
Complex __ is the component that transfers the electrons to O2.
4
x

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