CHM1025

Base name for hydrocarbon with 1 C atom
” ” 2-10 C atoms
1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
Suffix for single-bonded hydrocarbons
(alk)ane
Suffix for double-bonded hydrocarbons
(at least one double-bond)
(alk)ene
Suffix for triple-bonded hydrocarbons
(at least one triple-bond)
(alk)yne
In its compounds, carbon always forms ____ bond(s).
four
Organic compounds can be characterized into two types:
hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain
only carbon and hydrogen
(compose common fuels such as oil, gasoline, liquid propane gas, and natural gas)
Functionalized hydrocarbons can be thoguht of as
hydrocarbons in which a functional group — a characteristic atom or group of atoms — is incorporated into the hydrocarbon
Organic compounds with an -OH functional group
alcohols
A group of organic compounds with the same functinal group forms
a family
The addition of a functional group to a hydrocarbon (alters/doesn’t alter) the properties of the compound.
alters
(significantly)
The general formula for functional hydrocarbons uses the letter “R” to denote
the hydrocarbon (R) group
Name endings for families:
Alcohols
Ethers
Aldehydes
Ketones
Carboxylic acids
Esters
Amines
-ol
ehter
-al
-one
acid
-ate
amine
The addition of a functional group to a hydrocarbon (alters/doesn’t alter) the properties of the compound.
alters
(significantly)
Chemical equations are balanced when
the number of each type of atom on the left side equals the number on the right
Elements that form ions with predictable negative charges
[image]
Elements that form ions with predictable positive charges
[image]
Nonelectrolytes dissolve as (intact molecules / ions) and are considered (electrolytes / nonelectrolytes).
intact molecules
nonelectrolytes
Acids are molecular compounds that ______ in water
ionize (dissociate into ions)
Strong acids (completely / incompletely) ionize in solution and are therefore (strong / weak) electrolyes
completely
strong
An aqueous solution of a weak acid would be composed mostly of (ionized / nonionized) acid
nonionized
(only a small percentage of weak acid molecules ionize)
Partial ionization of a weak acid in solution is represented in a chemical equation by
opposing half arrows
Water is only produced in neutralization reactions that involve a
strong base
Bases that do not contain OH usually contain
N
Common name for NH3
Ammonia (weak base)

NH3 + H2O <==> NH4 + OH

Most salts containing alkali metal or ammonium (NH4+) cations are (soluble/insoluble)
soluble
A series of similar observations can lead to the development of a(n)
scientific law (summarizes past observations and predicts future ones)
A ______________ is a model for the way nature is and explains not merely what nature does but why.
scientific theory

(John Dalton’s atomic theory explained Lavoisier’s law of conservation of mass)

Three states of matter are
solid, liquid, and gas
Solid matter may be __________ or __________.
crystalline (salt/diamond);
amorphous (glass/plastic)
Divisions of Classification of Matter (flowchart)
[image]
A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions is a(n)
compound
Chemical properties include
corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, toxicity, etc. (composition is changed to exhibit these properties)
Physical properties include
color, taste, odor, appearance, melting point, boiling point, density, etc. (composition is not changed to exhibit these properties)
Action of a force through a distance =
work
The capacity to do work =
energy
“Energy is neither created nor destroyed” is a scientific _______.
law (principle)
Alcohol’s ability to mix with water is a ______ property
physical (mixing doesn’t involve making/breaking chem bonds)
“Other nonmetals” on period table =
C H O N P S Se
Halogens on periodic table =
F Cl Br I At (Column 17)
Noble gases on period table =
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn (Column 18)
John Dalton’s Atomic Theory (4 parts)
1) Elements are made up of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms
2) Atoms of the same element have the same mass and distinguishing properties
3) Atoms combine in small whole-number ratios to form compounds
4) Atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element (chm rxns only change the way atoms are bound)
Negatively charged, low mass particle present in all atoms (discovered by JJ Thomson w/ cathode ray) =
electron (2000 times less massive than H)
Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment determined
the mass of a single electron (9.1 x 10^-28 g)
Thomson’s Cathode Ray Experiment determined
charge/mass ratio of electrons (-1.76 x 10^8 coulombs per gram)
Rutherford’s Nuclear Theory of the Atom (3 parts)
1) Most of an atom’s mass and all of its positive charge are located inside the nucleus
2) Most volume of atom is empty space with tiny negative electrons dispersed
3) There are as many positively charged particles (protons) as there are electrons (making atoms charge-neutral)
The mass of a neutron is similar to that of a ______.
proton
Charge of proton =
Charge of electron =
Charge of neutron =
positive
negative
neutral
Location of proton =
Location of electron =
Location of neutron =
nucleus
electron cloud
nucleus
If an atom is charge-neutral, # of ______ = # of _______.
protons / electrons
99.9% of an atom’s mass is in
the nucleus (protons and neutrons)
Mass of proton = ____ amu
Mass of neutron = ____ amu
Mass of electron = ____ amu
Mass of proton ~ 1 amu (baseball)
Mass of neutron ~ 1 amu (baseball)
Mass of electron ~ .00055 amu (rice grain)
Atomic number (Z)=
# of protons (defines element)
Isotopes = when # of _______ varies
neutrons
Mass # (A)= # of _____________
# of protons + # of neutrons
Mass number differs between atoms with a different number of _________, known as ________ of that element.
neutrons, isotopes
Ions have lost or gained _________.
electrons
Positively charged ions = _______ = (lost/gained) electron
cations ; lost
Main group metals tend to ____ electrons
lose
Main group nonmetals tend to ____ electrons
gain
Atomic mass = (def)
average mass of an element (weighted according to natural abundance of each isotope)
Ionic bonds occur between __________ and involve the _______ of electrons
metals and nonmetals
transfer
***attraction comes from difference in charges after electron transfer***
Covalent bonds occur between _________ and involve the _________ of electrons
two or more nonmetals
sharing
T/F
Elements may be either atomic or molecular
True (2 or more atoms of the element bonded together)
H2 N2 Cl2 O2 P4 S8
Molecular compounds are usually composed of two or more ______-bonded ____________
covalently bonded
nonmetals
(CO2 C3H8)
________ are ionic compounds that have a specific number of water moelcules associated with each forumula unit
Hydrates
Prefixes 1-10 for naming molecular compounds
1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca
Acids are (molecular/ionic) compounds
Molecular
[H (nonmetal) is usually first, then one or more nonmetals]
Acids can be divided into two categories:
binary acids and oxyacids
Oxyacids contain hydrogen and ________
an oxyanion

nitric acid HNO3 (ate=ic)
sulfurous acid SO3 (ite=ous)

Binary acids contain hydrogen and _______
a nonmetal

hydrochloric acid HCl
hydrobromic acid HBr

Oxyanion:
an anion containing a nonmetal and oxygen (nitrate, chlorate, sulfite, etc)
Which of the following require prefixes for their names?
Molecular Compounds
Ionic Compounds
Acids
Molecular Compounds
(Ionic compounds DO NOT require prefixes)
A group of organic compounds with the same __________ _____ form a ______
functional group
family
(methanol, isopropyl alcohol)
x

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