Clinical Chemistry Ch 12

fetus
unborn but recognizable human organism between 10 week’s and 40 week’s gestation
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
classic hormone marker of pregnancy produced by the placenta after the fertilized oocyte implants
human placental lactogen (hPL)
hormone produced by the placenta and involved in maternal glucose and fat metabolism and mammary gland function
endometrium
the lining of the uterus
estriol
18-carbon steriod molecule that is the main estrogen found in pregnant women
follicle
sac produced by the ovary containing an oocyte
estrone
18-carbon steroid molecule that is less active than other estrogens
estradiol
18-carbon steroid molecule that is the main estrogen found in non-pregnant women
dehydroepiandrosterone
19-carbon molecule found in small amounts as a precursor to some estrogens in women and as a precursor to male sex steroids
miscarriage
sudden unplanned evacuation of the uterus, ending pregnancy
ultrasound
imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs, tissue, and blood vessels
Sertoli cells
specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that produce inhibin and factors that help sperm maturation
prebubescent
before sexual maturity
gonads
reproductive organs:  the testes in the male and ovaries in the female
gametocyte
sperm cell or oocyte
follicular phase
first half of the female menstrual cycle leading up to maturity of one follicle and release of an oocyte
luteal phase
second half of the female menstrual cycle following ovulation and the dominance of the corpus luteum
ejaculation
ejection of sperm cells and seminal fluid at orgasm
Leydig cells
specialized interstitial cells of the testes surrounding the tubules that produce testosterone
libido
sexual desire
encephalocele
congenital opening in the skull with protrusion of brain tissue
anencephaly
a fatal congenital absence of or greatly reduced brain, particularly the cerebrum, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during organ formation
meningomyelocele
congenital opening in the spinal cord membranes through which the cord protrudes:  also called spina bifida
trisomy
three copies of a chromosome instead of the normal 2
Edward’s syndrome
congenital and fatal defect of the fetus (trisomy 18) causing severe multiorgan defects, including mental deficiency
antibody titer
measure of the amoount of antibody against a particular antigen is present in the blood
hydrops fetalis
stasis of fluids in tissue spaces, secondary to loss of albumin, leading to a condition in infants of hepatosplenomegaly and respiratory and circulatory destress
kernicterus
yellow staining of the lipid-rich meninges of the brain and spinal cord due to bilirubin infiltrates
phototherapy
exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for therapeutic purposes, such as treating neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
sensitization
production of antibody as a response to antigen exposure
glucocorticoids
adrenal cortical hormones primarily active in protecting against stress and affecting protein and carbohydrate metabolism
surfactant
a substance that reduces the surface tension of the moist surfaces of solid tissue
alveoli
sacs at the end of air ducts in the lungs and in contact with capillaries that allow gases to diffuse in or out
pneumocytes
two types (I and II) of cells that form the alveoli of the lungs
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
severe impairment of respiratory function in a preterm newborn due to immaturity of the enzymatic system essential for pulmonary surfactant production
premature labor
labor that begins between 20 and 38 weeks’ gestation
premature rupture of membranes
rupture of amniotic membrane prior to the time labor is expected
pre-eclampsia
a complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and edema
eclampsia
coma and convulsive seizures of the mother between week 20 of pregnancy and the end of the first week after birth
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