Colligative properties

What condition must an IMF be in for solutions
when solute to solvent attractions are greater than the solute to solvent attractions
Hydration
Solvation where water is the solvent
Ion dipole solivation
solution of water and ionic solute
London dispersion
dominate in non polar solute solvent interactions
Solivation
interactions between solute and solvent
Name the 3 steps in solivation
1. Expansion of solute 2. expanding solvent 3. Formation of solute solvent IMF
Spontanaity and NRG
Requires input of energy to dissolve and increase of entropy
Solutions will occur with spontanaity if
energy requirments are lowered results in endothermic solution
Crystalization
particles bumping into eachother and becoming solid
Saturated solutions
eq is established with the solute
Solubility
amount opf solute needed to form a saturated solution in a given amount of solute
unsaturated
less solute
supersaturated
more solute than can be fully dissolved
Polar/ non polar affect on solubility
Like dissolves likes. Polar/ hydrophillic
Nonpolar/ hydrophobic
Henry’s law
P=KC
Henrys law definition
THe amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the Soln
How does temp affect the solubilitty of solids
Increase in temp increases solubility
How does temp effect the solubility of gasses
increase in temp lowers solubility
COlligative properties
properties that depend on the amount of solute
Boiling point elevation
increase in concentration increase in BP
delta t= Km
Freezing point depression
increase in concentration decrease in freezing point delta t= Km
Vapor pressure
pressure exerted by a liquid in a closed container
Non volatile liquid
liquid with no measurable vapor pressure
volatile liquid
liquid with vapor pressure adding a non lowers VP
Osmosis
movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane toward the area of lower solute concentration
Osmotic pressure
pressure neccesary to keep water from flowing across a semi permeable membrane
Formula for osmotic pressure
pi= MRT
Collids
solutions with particles that are too big to dissolve but too small to settle out
Collodial dispersions
dividing lines between solutions and heterogenuos mixtures( tiny particles suspended in medium)
Tyndall effect
scattering of light by particles light passes through a solution but not through the collid
Couagulation
enlargong the collid particles so they can settle out to be removed from the solution
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