Colligative Properties

a property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identities; the boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, and vapor-pressure lowering
colligative properties
what are three important colligative properties?
vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression
what is the decrease in a solutions vapor pressure proportional?
the number of particles the solute makes in solution
the difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent
freezing point depression
what is the magnitude of the freezing point depression proportional to?
the number of solute particles dissolved in the solvent and does not depend on their identity
the difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent
boiling point elevation
what is the magnitude of the boiling point elevation proportional to?
the number of soulte particles dissolved in the solvent
what is vapor pressure?
the pressure exerted by a vapor that is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid in a closed system
what does volatile mean?
does not vaporize easily
do nonvolatile solutions have a higher or lower vapor pressure?
lower
what are two volatile substances?
glucose and sodium chloride
do ionic solutes in solutions have a greater effect vapor pressure than other solutes?
yes
why would NaCl lower the vapor pressure of a solution twice as much as potassium?
NaCl has two different elements and potassium only has one
what happens to the structure of the particles of a substance when it freezes?
the particle structure becomes more organized
whaat does a solute in water do to the structuring of the particles when the liquid turns to a solid?
it disrupts the arrangment of the particles and more energy must be withdrawn for the structure to happen
do solutions have a lower or higher freezing point than solvents?
lower
how much does one mole of solute lower the freezing point of water?
1.86 degrees celsius per 1000 grams of water
how many degrees does the addition of 2 moles of solute lower the freezing point?
2 times 1.86 degrees celsius per 1000 grams of water
how many degrees does the boiling point rise when 1 mole of solute is added?
0.512 degrees celsius per 1000 grams of water
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