Common Organic Structures

What is an alkane?
Hydrocarbons with only single bonds (C-C)
What is an alkene?
Hydrocarbons with double bonds (C=C)
Whan is an alkyne?
Hydrocarbons with triple bonds (C≡C)
What is an alcohol?
Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group (-OH) as their functional group
What is an ether?
Two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom (R-O-R’) (R’ is a second alkyl group and can be the same or different from R)
What is a ketone?
Two alkyl groups bnded to a carbonyl group (C=O) (R-C=O-R’)
What is an aldehyde?
One alkyl group and a Hydrogen bonded to a carbonyl group (C=O) (R-C=O-H)
What is an aromatic hydrocarbon?
Derivatives of benzene, represented by a six-membered ring with three double bonds.

Criteria of an aromatic hydrocarbon:
1. Planar (not 3D)
2. Completely conjugated (all p-orbitals are filled)
3. 4n+2 π bonds (2, 6, 10, 14, etc.)
4. Molecule must be cyclical

What is a carboxylic acid?
Organic compounds with a carboxyl group (-COOH) as their functional group
What is an ester?
A carboxylic acid derivative (R-COOR’)
What is an amine?
An alkylated derivative of ammonia
What is an amide?
An acid derivative that results from a combination of an acid with ammonia or an amine
What is a nitrile?
A compound containing a cyano group (C≡N)
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