Covalent Bonding

single covalent bond
a bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons
structural formulas
chemical formulas that show the arrangement of atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions
unshared pairs
pairs of valence electrons that are not shared between atoms
double covalent bonds
bonds that involve two shared pairs of electrons
triple covalent bond
bonds that involve three shared pairs of electrons
coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
bond dissociation energy
the total energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms
resonance structures
structures that occur when it is possible to write two or more valid elctron dot formulas that have teh same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
diamagnetic
substances in which all of the electrons are paired
paramagnetic
substances that contain one or more unpaired electrons
molecular orbitals
orbitals that apply to the entire molecule
bonding orbital
a molecular orbital with an energy that is lower than that of the atomic orbitals from which it formed
antibonding orbital
a molecular orbital with an energy that is higher than that of the atomic orbitals from which it formed
sigma bond
when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting two atomic nuclei
pi bond
the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms
tetrahedral angle
109.5 degrees
VSEPR theory
states that because electron pairs repel, molecular shape adjustsso the valence-electronpairs are as far apart as possible
hybridization
several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
nonpolar covalent bond
when the atoms in the bond pull equally and the bonding electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond (polar bond)
when a covalent bond joins two atoms of different elements and the bonding electrons are share unequally
polar molecule
one end of the molecule is slightly negative and the other end is slightly positive
dipole
a molecule that has two poles
van der Waals forces
the weakest molecular attractions
collectively named
dispersion forces
the weakest of all molecular interactons
caused by the motion of electrons
dipole interactions
occurs when polar molecules are attracted to one another
hydrogen bonds
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalentlybonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair ofanother electronegative atom
network solids
solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other
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