ECHEM Exam 1 Terms and def

The hydrologic cycle
dynamic relation of water between the oceans, atmosphere, ice and snow, plus surface and ground water
What is the water use in the US
46% Industrial
46% Agricultural
8% Municiple
Hydrology
the study of water
Limnology
characteristics of freshwater including biological, chemical and physical properties
oceanography
characteristic of seawater including biological chemical and physical properties
What is the average bond length of a covalent O-H bond?
0.99 A
What is the average bond length of a hydrogen bond?
1.77 A
What is a good estimate of bond strength?
Bond length
At what temp is water most dense?
4 C
Why does water expand when it freezes?
Water expands when it freezes because of the lattice 4:1 H:O hexagonal occurence that makes it less dense than liquid water
Dielectric constant
the ability to allow ions to exist singularly
Properties of Water:
High dielectric constant
Environmental effect:
-able to ionize substances
-increase solubility
-increase mobility
Properties of Water:
High surface tension
Environmental effect:
-Results from h-bonding
-governs drop and surface phenomena
Properties of Water:
Excellent solvent
Environmental effect:
Transport nutrients
transport waste product in infrastructure
Properties of Water:
Max density at 4C
Environmental effect:
-Ice floats, prevents lakes from freezing solid
Stratifies lakes
Properties of Water:
high heat of evaporation
liq->vapor
Environmental effect:
-Temp stabilization at phase change
Properties of Water:
High latent heat of fusion
Environmental effect:
-Temp stabilization at phase change
Properties of Water:
High heat capacity
1 cal per gram per degree
Environmental effect:
-Stabilizes water temp to avoid shock
-Stabilizes geographic regions
-provides stable environment for aquatic organisms
Oligotrophic
deep clear lakes, Low amounts of nutrients. low bioactivity
euthrophic
more nutrients, supports some life, and more turbid
Dystrophic
shallow lakes, abundant plant life, colored water
What does colored water indicate?
Reducing enviroment
Wetlands
Shallow enough for plant roots
What do wetland systems do?
Toxic remediation of metals by plants
Explain solubility of gases in water.
Solubility of gas is inversely proportional to temperature
euthrophic
more nutrients, supports some life, and more turbid
Dystrophic
shallow lakes, abundant plant life, colored water
What does colored water indicate?
Reducing enviroment
Wetlands
Shallow enough for plant roots
What do wetland systems do?
Toxic remediation of metals by plants
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
the amount of dissolved oxygen that must be present in water in order for microorganisms to decompose the organic matter in the water, used as a measure of the degree of pollution.
Krast topography
A landscape that is characterized by numerous caves, sinkholes, fissures, and underground streams. Usually forms in regions of plentiful rainfall where bedrock consists of carbonate-rich rock that is easily dissolved.
Explain krast topography in Florida
[image]
alkalinity
-capacity to accept H+
-Generallt high [dissolved solids] and high pH
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