## Electron Configuration

 Light travels through space in the form of what energy?
 In the 1800’s, what did scientists think light behaved like?
 Waves
 In the 1900’s, what did scientists think light behaved like?
 Tiny, fast moving particles.
 What characteristics does light have?
 Light has characteristics of both waves and particles.
 Electromagnetic waves consist of what?
 Electric and magnetic fields oscillating at right angles to each other and to the direction of the motion of the wave.
 Waves can be described in what four ways?
 1. Amplitude2. Wavelength (λ)3. Frequency (v)4. Speed
 What is the value of c?
 3.00 X 10^8 m/s
 What is the formula for λ?
 λ=c/v
 How do λ and v relate?
 Inversely. As frequency (v) increases, λ decreases.
 What is the example of a continuous spectrum?
 The Visible spectrum.
 What energy, frequency, and λ does violet have? (shortest, longest, highest, lowest, high, low?)
 Shortest wavelength, high energy, highest frequency.
 What energy, frequency, and λ does red have? (shortest, longest, highest, lowest, high, low?)
 Longest wavelength, lowest frequencies, low energy.
 What are the fundamental restrictions on the amount of energy an object emits or absorbs?
 Quantums.
 E and v are _______________ proportional to each other?
 Directly. As one increases, the other increases.
 What is the formula for energy?
 E=hv
 What is h, and what is it’s value?
 h is Planck’s constant. h=6.6262 x 10^-34 j-s
 What is Planck’s constant?
 h. h=6.6262 x 10^-34
 Energy seems continuous becuase the quanta are too small to notice in the everyday world.
 What is the photoelectric effect?
 The photoelectric effect: electrons ejected from the surface when light shines on the metal. Red light will not release the electrons, even if very intense. Violet light will release them very easily even though if faintly intense.
 Einstein proposed what?
 That light consists of quanta of energy called PHOTONS.
 Energy is dependent on what of the photon, and not the number of photons?
 The frequency. (v)
 Photons are what?
 The intensity of the light.
 The line spectra contain only certain colors, or?
 λ’s.
 BOHR Model: Ground state is the?
 Lowest energy level. n=1
 Excited states contain which n values?
 n > 1
 How does the Bohr model account for the line spectrum of the hydrogen atom? (what did Bohr conclude?)
 When radiation is absorbed, an electron jumps from the ground state to the excited state.
 Matter waves: De Broglie’s equation predicts that…?
 Particles of matter should exhibit a wavelength.
 Heisenberg proposed what principle? Explain it.
 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Proposed that the momentum and position of a moving object (such as electrons!) cannot be measured and known simultaneously.
 Electrons do not orbit the nucleus, but are located by what? (P-)
 Probability.
 Quantum-mechanic model explains that the properties of atoms by treating the electrons as what?
 Waves that have quanized energy.
 Define an ATOMIC ORBITAL.
 An atomic orbital is a region around the nucleus where an atom with a given energy is likely to be found.
 What are the letters that designate orbitals, and in what order?
 SPDF. After F, alphabetical.
 All p orbitals are _________ shaped.
 Dumbbell.
 S orbitals have what shape?
 S orbitals are Spherical.
 What determines the kind of orbital an electron occupies?
 The amount of energy.
 How many sublevels does s have?
 One.
 How many sublevels does P have?
 Three.
 Name the sublevels at n=3.
 3s^2, 3p^6, 3d^10.
 The Pauli Exclusion Principle states what?
 That each orbital in an atom holds at most 2 electrons and that they must have opposite spin.
 Electron configuration describes what?
 The location and energies of electrons.
 State the 3 principle.
 Pauli Exclusion, Aufbau, Hund’s
 Define the Aufbau principle.
 Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest enery orbitals available until all of the electrons of the atom have been accounted for.
 Define the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
 An orbital can hold 2 electrons. To be in the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Electrons with opposite spins are called paired.
 Define Hund’s Rule.
 Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals, so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons result. Electrons in the singly filled orbital must have parrallel spin (same direction).
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