## Electronic Structure of Atoms

 electronic structure
 the arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule
 a form of energy that has awave characteristics and that propagates through a vacuum at the characteristic speed of 3.00*10^8 m/s
 wavelength
 the distance between identical points on successive waves
 frequency
 the number of times per second that one complete wavelength passes a given point
 quatum
 the smallest increment of radiant energy that may be absorbed or emitted the magnitude of radiant energy is hv
 Planck’s constant
 the constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon E = hv; equals 6.626*10^-34 J-s
 photoelectric effect
 the emissions of electrons from a metal surface induced by light
 spectrum
 the distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object
 continuous spectrum
 a spectrum that contains radiation distributed over all wavelengths
 line spectrum
 a spectrum that contains radiation at only certain specific wavelengths
 ground state
 the lowest energy, or most stable, state
 excited states
 a higher energy state than the ground state
 matter waves
 the term used to describe the wave characteristics of a moving particle
 momentum
 the product of the mass and velocity of an object
 uncertainty principle
 a principle stating there is an inherent uncertainty in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and momentum of a particle this uncertainty is significant only for particles of extremely small mass, such as electrons
 wave functions
 a mathematical description of an allowed energy state (an orbital)
 probability density
 a value the represents the probability that an electron will be found at a given point in space
 electron density
 the probability of finding tan electron at any particular point in an atom; this probability is equal to the square of the wave function
 orbitals
 an allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron; an orbital is defind the the values of three quantum numbers: n, l, and ml
 electron shell
 a collection of orbitals that have the same value of n
 subshell
 one or more orbitals with the same set of quantum numbers n and l
 the probability that the electron will be found at a certain distance from the nucleus
 nodes
 points in an atom at which the electron density is zero; for example the node in a 2s orbital is spherical surface
 degenerate
 a situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy
 electron spin
 a property of the electron that makes it behave as though it were a tiny magnet; the electron behaves as if it were spinning on its axis; electron spin is quantized
 spin magnetic quantum number
 a quantum number associated with the electron spin
 Pauli exclusion principle
 a rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers; as a reflection of this principle, there can be no more than two electrons in any one atomic orbital
 electron configuration
 the arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom or molecule
 Hund’s rule
 a rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin; in other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs
 valence electrons
 the outermost electrons of an atom; those that occupy orbitals not occupied in the nearest noble-gas element of lower atomic number; the valence electrons are the ones the atom uses in bonding
 core electrons
 the electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom
 representative elements
 an element from within the s and p blocks of the periodic table
 main-group elements
 elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table
 transition elements
 elements in which the d orbitals are partially occupied
 lanthanide (rare earth) elements
 element in which the 4f subshell is only partially occupied
 actinide elements
 element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied
 f-block metals
 lanthanide and actinide elements in which the 4f and 5f orbitals are partially occupied
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