Electronic transition

Electronic translation
The movement of an electron from one energy level to another
Electronic translation
represented by means of an arrow
Why was Bohr’s model accepted?
It was the FIRST model of them atom that could explain the hydrogen spectrum
What is given off when an electron goes to a lower energy level?
A proton of electromagnetic radiation
How can an electron go to a higher energy level?
Only by absorbing energy from an outside source
When is an atom in an excited state?
When one of its electrons has been promoted to a higher energy level
When an atom is in the ground state, where are the electrons?
In the lowest possible energy levels
Emission spectrum of hydrogen atoms
1. Lymon Series
2. Balmen Series
3. Paschen Series
Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen atoms
Consists of thre series of lines
Lymon Series
– Produced by Uv photons
– Due to transition of electrons from higher energy levels to n=1
Balmen series
– Produced by visible photons
– Due to the transitions of electrns from higher energy levels to n=2
Paschen Series
– Produced by i.n. photons
– Due to the transition of electrons from higher energy levels to n=3
What could Bohr’s model of the atom explain?
The spectra of single atoms with one electron
The wavelike properties of electrons are useful for what?
Magnifying objects
Why was Rutherford’s model replaced?
1. It couldn’t explain why metals of compounds give off characteristic colors when heated
2. The chemical properties of the elements
In Bohr’s model, electrons are arranged in what?
Specific, concentric, circular paths or orbits around the nucleus
In Bohr’s model, electrons in a particular circular path have a what?
Fixed energy
In Bohr’s model, electrons in the cuircularpath closest to the nucles have the?
Lowest energy
In Bohr’s model, electrons in the circular path furthest away from the nucles have?
The highest energy
In Bohr’s model, electrons can?
They can jump from one energy levels to another
In Bohr’s model, the amount of energy needed to move an electron from its present energy level to the next higher one is called?
A quantum of energy
In Bohr’s Model, what gets closer the higher you go?
Energy levels
In Bohr’s model, the elecgtron goes up the ladder and gets further away from the nuclus, what happens to the energy level?
Increases
Quantum Mechanical model
Change Cloud model
Quantum mechanical model
Named after an area of physics which uses advanced math to study atoms and subatomic particles
Who was one of the main people who developed the quantum mechanical model?
Schrodinger
The quantum mechanical model tells us atoms have:
– Prinicipal energy levels
– Sublevels
– Orbitals
What is similar to Bohr’s energy levels?
Principal energy levels
1, 2, 3, etc. What are these numbers called that are associated with principal energy levels?
Principal quantum numbers; These numbers are represented by the letter m
Principal energy levels conatin?
One or more sublevels
Each principal energy level has:
– N sublevels
– N squared orbitals
– 2 N squared electrons when completely filled
Sublevels of a prinipal energy level have:
– Equal energies when the atom contains only 1 electron
– Differen energies when the atom has more than 1 electron
Are not the same as orbits
Orbitals
Region in space in which it is most likely to find an electron
Orbital
Each orbital can have a maximum of?
2 electrons (Called an orbital pair)
Used to describe the placement of electrons in orbitals
Orbital diagrams
What is a half filled orbital represented by?
A box or circle containing a single arrow pointed either up or down
What is a filled orbital represented by?
A box or circle containing 2 arrows, one pointing up and the other pointing down
A shorthand notation describing the arrangement of electron in an atom
Electron configuration
Principle energy level
Coefficent
Type of orbital or sublevel
Letter
Orientation of orbital (optional)
Subscript
Number of electrons in an electron configuration
Superscript
Equals the total number of electrons in the atom
Superscript Total of the Electron configuration
Equals Z, the atomic number (total number of protons), when the atom is neutral
Superscript total of the Electron Configuration
How to simplify Electron configurations:
1. Do not use subscripts
2. Use mobile gas symbols
Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
Aufbou principal
An atomic orbital may have at most 2 electrons and they must have opposite spins
Pauli exclusion principal
When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with the same spin
Hund’s Rule
Ground state Electron configuration Rules
1. Aufbou principle
2. Pauli exclusion principal
3. Hund’s rule
Filled sublevels are more stable than what?
partially filled sublevels
Half filled sublevels are not as stable as filled sublevels, but are more stable than?
Other configurations
The quantu mechanical model grew out of the study of what?
Light
Who thought of light as consisting of particles?
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
By 1900, most scientists believed light was a?
Wave
A ____ is a wiggle (vibration) in time through space
Wave
The distance between 2 neighboring crests
Wavelength (lambda)
Number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time
Frequency (v, nu)
The waves height from its origin (zero point) to the crest
Amplitude (A)
An arrangement of different types of waves acording to wavelength and frequency
Spectrum
Very well known spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum
Inversely related
Frequency and wavelength
As wavelength increases-
Frequency decreases
The product of any 2 variables that are inversely related is equal to:
A constant
What are the two things that the modern theory of light says that light has?
A wave of nature and a particle of nature
The modern thoery of light says that light is composed of what?
Photons
A particle of ligh which has a frequency and wavelength
Photon
Bundle of energy
Photon
Producedf by electrons
Photon
Can travel billions of miles thrugh space and tell us the atoms that are present in the stars
Photons
Light is often composed of many different types of light each having a different?
Wavelength and frequency
Different types of light can often seperated by what?
Using a prism
When does every element emit light?
When it is excited by the passage of an elctric discharge through its gas or vapor
When light from excited elements pass through a prism, you get a?
Atomic emission spectrum
What does each element of light have?
Its own, unique emission spectrum
Each line in the emission spectrum is produced by an:
Electronic transition
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