
the height of a wave’s crest. 


the pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains. 


a mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations; usually represented by the region of space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron. 


the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy level first. 

electromagnetic radiation 

energy waves that traveil at a speed of approximately 300 million meters per second in a vaccuum; includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, Xrays,, and gamma rays. 


the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms. 


the specific energies an electron in an atom can have. 


the number of wave cylces that pass a given point per unit of time; frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other. 


the lowest possible energy of an electron as described by quantum mechanics. 

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 

it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a very small particle at the same time. 


the unit of frequency, equal to one cylcle per second. 


electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible. 

Pauli Exclusion Principle 

an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction; it is impossible for any two electrons within an atom to have all four of their quantum numbers to be identical. 


a quantum of light or a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter in a similar manner as particles. 


the amount of energy necessary to move an electron from one energy level to another. 


the primarily mathematical, modern description of the behavior of electrons in atoms 


wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. 


the distance between adjacent crests of a wave. 
