Ratio of ([products]/[reactants]) = a constant at a given T


Δn(gas)=mol gaseous products- mol gaseous reactants

Reaction Quotient (Q)

A ratio of terms for a given reation conststing of product concentration multiplied together and divided by reatant concentrations multiplied together, each raised to the power of their balancing coefficient

=([C]c X [D]d)/([A]a x[B]b) for aA+bB→cC+dD

Reaction quotient (Q)
For nonequilibrium conditions, the expression having the same form as Kc or Kp is called the 
Reaction proceeds to tright as written to achieve equilibrium
Reaction proceeds to left as written to achieve eqilibrium
Arrhenius acid
A substance that has H in its formula and dissociates in water to yield H3O+
Arrhenius base
A substance that has OH in its fomula and dissociates in water to yield OH
Acid dissociation constant (Ka)

An equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid (HA) in H2O to yield the conjgate base (A) and H3O+



Le Chatelier’s Principle
A disturbed system undergoes a net reaction to reattain equilibrium
Bronsted-Lowry acid
A proton donor, any species that donates an H+ ion
Bronsted Lowry base
A proton acceptor, any species that accepts the H+ ion
conjugate acid
formed when a base accepts a H+ from an acid
conjugate base
of an acid is the acid minus the proton it has donated
Buffer range
The pH range over which a buffer acts effectively; related to the relative component concentrations
Buffer capacity
A measure of the ability of a buffer to resist a change in pH; related to the total concentrations and relative proportiond of buffer components
Acid-Base indicator
A species whose color is different in acid and in base, which is used to monitor the equivalence point of a titration or the pH of a solution
Kw= [H3O+][OH]=1.0×10-14
pH= -log[H3O+]
pOH= -log[OH]
pKw= pH+pOH =14.00
a substance that could act as both an acid and a base
Common ion effect
The shift in the position of an ionic equilbirium away from formation of an ion that is caused by the addition (or prescence) of that ion.
Qsp; Ksp
No precipitate will form
A precipitate will form
Kf (metal-ligand complex)
Kf= [MLN]/([M][L]N) usually ;;1
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
=pKa+ log([salt]/[acid])
Kh= Kw/Ka or Kw/Kb