Equilibrium

Heat of Fusion (enthalpy of Fusion)
The heat needed for the melting of a solid.

Latent heat of fusion=(Heat supplied for melting of whole amount of Iodine taken)/(amount of Iodine taken)

Calculating Delta fus or Delta vap
AMTg(1mole/molecular wieght)(Heat of Fusion or Vap/1)=Ans Kj
Calculating g’s of Liquid from g’s of solid and heat of fusion and vap
Step 1: G’s sold(1 mole/Molecular wieght)(Heat of Fusion/1Mole)=Heat in Kj (absolute)
Step 2: Heat Kj(1 mole/Heat of vap)(Molecular weight/1 mole=Grams Liquid
Antilogarithms(antiln)
e^x
Relating vapor pressure and temperature changes (Clausius-Clapeyron Equation)
P1/P2=DeltH(vap)/R(gas Constant-8.31 J/K*Mol)(1/T1-1/T2)
Henry’s law
Solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the solution.

S=KhP (s=Solubility (mass solute/volume solvent), Kh=Henry’s constant for the gas, P=Partial Pressure)

Mass % of solute
the percentage by mass of solute contained in a solution.

Mass Percentage of soute=mass solute/mass solution*100

Molality (molar concentration)
The moles of solute dissolved in one liter or 1 Kg of solution

Moles Solute/Kg of solution=molality in moles

Mole Fraction – Molar Fraction
a unit of concentration, defined to be equal to the number of moles of a component divided by the total number of moles of a solution.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy that has two basic characteristics: Wavelength and Frequency
Wavelength
The distance between two adjacent peaks of a wave. Units of distance.
Frequency
The number of wavelenghts of a wave of energy that passa point per unit time. Measured in “per second” or hertz.
The electromagnetic spectrum
consists of a range of frequencies or wavelenght of electromagnetic radiation
Solute
THhe component of a solution that is in the smaller amount (Unless gas or solid in liquid)
Solvent
Greater amount in solution
Colligative properties
Properties of a solution that depend on the concentration of solute molecules or ions in a solution, not on the chemical identity of a solution.
Soluble in water
1. All salts containing Group 1A(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and Ammonium Cations (NH4)
2. All salts containing nitrate (NO3), acetate (CH3CO2) and pechlorate (ClO4) anions
3. All salts containing Halide IOns (Cl, Br, I) except those of Cu, Sr, Ba, Pb
4. All salts containing sulfate (SO4) anions except those of Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb.
Insoluble in Water
All salts containing hydroxide anion )OH) except those of group 1a, and Sr and Ba.
2. All salts containing sulfide anions (S) except those of group 1A, Group IIA, and ammonium cations.
3. All salts containing carbonate (CO3) Phosphate (PO4), arsenate (AsO4), chromate (CrO4), and iodate (IO3) anions except those of group 1A and ammonium.
Temperature and solubility
Gas-as temp increases, solubility of gases decrease
Liquids-in general, as temp increase, sol increases—-Many exeptions.
Molarity
Moles solute/liters solution
Equilibrium constant(Keq)
Keq=C^c*D^d/A^a*B^b (Big letters in Moles/Liter)

This is assuming reaction aA+bB<->cC+dD

Ideal gas law and equilibrium constant
Kp=Ke(RT)deltan (change in the number of moles=moles of product-moles of reactant
Le Chatliers principle
When a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temp, pres, ot concentration, the system shifts in a way that tends to counteract the change.

If reactants or pooducts are added or subtracted, then the equilibrium willl shift to satisfy K

Law of mass action
Reaction will always want to be at equilibrium
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