Everything

What is the colour of:

VO3 (+5)

Colourless

What is the colour of:

VO2+ (+5)

Orange

What is the colour of:

VO2+ (+4)

Blue

What is the colour of:

V3+ (+3)

Green

What is the colour of:

V 2+ (+2)

Violet

What is the colour of:

Cr2O7 2- (+6)

Orange

What is the colour of:

CrO42- (+6)

Yellow

What is the colour of:

Cr 3+

Blue/green

What is the colour of:

Cr 2+

Blue

What is the colour of:

[Cr(H2O)6]3+

Red (solution)

What is the colour of:

[Cr(H2O)3(OH)3]

Green (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Cr(H2O)2(OH)4]

Green (solution)

What is the colour of:

[Cr(NH3)6]3+

Purple (solution)

What is the colour of:

MnO4 (+7)

Purple

What is the colour of:

Mn 2+

Colourless

What is the colour of:

Fe 2+

Green

What is the colour of:

Fe 3+

Yellow

What is the colour of:

[Fe(H2O)3(OH)3]

Brown (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Fe(H2O)4(OH)2]

Green (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

FeCO3

Green (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Co(H2O)6]2+

Pink (solution)

What is the colour of:

CoCO3

Purple (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Co(H2O)4(OH)2]

Blue (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Co(H2O)3(OH)3]

Beige (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Co(NH3)6]2+

Pale yellow (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Co(NH3)6]3+

Brown (solution)

What is the colour of:

CoCl42-

Blue (solution)

What is the colour of:

Cu 2+

Blue

What is the colour of:

Cu+

White

What is the colour of:

Cu2O (+1)

Red

What is the colour of:

[Cu(H2O)4(OH)2]

Blue (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Cu(NH3)4(OH)2]

Blue (solution)

What is the colour of:

CuCO3

Green (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

CuCl42-

Green/yellow (solution)

What is the colour of:

[Al(H2O)3(OH)3]

White (precipitate)

What is the colour of:

[Al(OH)4]

Colourless (solution)
Lattice enthalpy of formation
Enthalpy change for 1 mol of a molecule from its ions in the gaseous state
Enthalpy of hydration
Enthalpy change when 1 mol of gaseous ions is converted into aqueous ions (or converted to an aqueous solution)
Perfect ionic model
Only ionic bonds between atoms and ions are perfect spheres
Enthalpy of atomisation
Enthalpy change for the formation of 1 mol of gaseous atoms from the element in their standard states
Enthalpy of lattice dissociation
Enthalpy change to separate 1 mol of an ionic lattice into its gaseous ions
Electron affinity
Enthalpy change when 1 mol of gaseous atoms become negatively charged ions
Bond dissociation enthalpy as applied to chlorine
Enthalpy change to break the bond in 1 mole of chlorine molecules to form 2 moles of gaseous chlorine atoms
Why is the enthalpy of atomisation of chlorine is exactly half the bond
dissociation enthalpy of chlorine?
For atomisation, only 1 mole of chlorine atoms, not 2 moles as in
bond enthalpy.
Why is the lattice dissociation enthalpy of magnesium chloride is greater than that
of calcium chloride?
The magnesium ion is smaller so attraction to the chloride ion stronger
Why is the lattice dissociation enthalpy of magnesium oxide is greater than that of
magnesium chloride?
The oxide ion has a greater charge so attracts the magnesium ion more strongly
how can the quantities of enthalpy change (?H), entropy change (?S) and
temperature (T) be used to predict whether a change is feasible.
?G = ?H – T?S
If ?G is less than or equal to 0 reaction is feasible
Explain why the evaporation of water is spontaneous even though this change is
endothermic.
In your answer, refer to the change in the arrangement of water molecules and the
entropy change.
The molecules become more disordered when water changes from a liquid to a gas therefore the entropy change is positive
T?S>?H
?G<0
What would you observe when Silver ions react with Fluoride ions?
No visible change (no ppt formed).
What would you observe when Silver ions react with Chloride ions?
White ppt
What would you observe when Silver ions react with Bromide ions?
Cream ppt
What would you observe when Silver ions react with iodide ions?
Pale yellow ppt
Is Silver Chloride soluble in ammonia?
If yes, what concentration of ammonia is it soluble in?
Yes.
Dilute ammonia.
Is Silver Bromide soluble in ammonia?
If yes, what concentration of ammonia is it soluble in?
Yes.
Concentrated ammonia.
Is Silver Iodide soluble in ammonia?
If yes, what concentration of ammonia is it soluble in?
No.
What reagent would you add to test for Sulphate ions?
And what would you observe?
Barium Chloride.
White ppt.
How would you test for Carbonate ions?
What reagents would you use?
Acid is added to the solution containing carbonate ions.
The Carbon Dioxide bubbles that are released is then passed through limewater.
The limewater then turns from clear to cloudy.
How would you test for a primary/secondary alcohol.
What would you observe?
Acidified Potassium Dichromate.
Colour change from orange to green.
How would you test for Aldehydes?
What would you observe?
Tollen’s Reagent: Silver mirror formed.
Heat with Fehling’s Solution: Red ppt.
How would you test for Ammonia?
What would you observe?
Damp litmus paper.
Colour changes to blue (from red).
How would you test for Carboxylic acids?
What would you observe?
Add Sodium Carbonate solution.
Effervescence (of Carbon Dioxide).
How would you test for Magnesium ions?
What would you observe?
Add Sodium Hydroxide.
White ppt
How would you test for Barium ions?
What would you observe?
Add Sulphuric acid.
White ppt.
How would you test for Ammonium ions?
What would you observe?
Add Sodium hydroxide (To produce ammonia).
Then test for ammonia using damp litmus paper.
What reagent would you add to a solution including halide ions, to distinguish which halide ion it is?
Add dilute nitric acid, followed by silver nitrate solution.
How would you test for Chloride ions (solid)?
What would you observe?
Add concentrated Sulphuric acid.
Misty fumes.
How would you test for Bromide ions (solid)?
What would you observe?
Add concentrated Sulphuric acid.
Orange fumes and a choking gas.
How would you test for Iodide ions (solid)?
What would you observe?
Add concentrated Sulphuric acid.
Purple fumes, black solid, choking gas and smell of bad eggs.
How would you test for Hydroxide ions?
What would you observe?
Add Magnesium chloride solution.
White ppt.
What can be added to sulphate ions to test for them? What would be observed?
BaCl2
White precipitate formed
What can be used to test for ammonia? What would be observed?
Damp litmus paper
Colour change from red to blue
What precipitate is formed and what is the colour of it when NaOH is added to Iron (II) chloride?
Fe(H2O)4(OH)2
Green
How could a test to time the colour change of a solution be improved from looking at the solution in a flask?
-Keep the solution at a constant temp because reaction rate is influenced by temp
-Use a colorimeter to monitor colour change which gives a more accurate time of colour change
How could H2O2 be separated from Ba(NO3)2?
By fractional distillation
Why would it be better to react sulphuric acid with BaO2 rather than nitric acid?
BaSO4 is insoluble so easier to separate from H2O2
Why can’t infrared spectroscopy be used to identify H2O in a solution of H2O2?
They both contain an OH group
Why does hydrogen peroxide decompose more quickly if it is kept in a clear glass bottle rather than a brown one?
Decomposition is accelerated by light
Even if hydrogen peroxide is corrosive, why does a spillage not have long term effects on the environment?
Decomposition products are harmless
What arrangement, reflux or distillation, should be used for the formation of ethanal and why?
Distillation
If reflux, further oxidation would occur and ethanoic acid would be formed
How would you ensure a reading from a pH meter is accurate?
Collaborate with a solution of a known pH and plot a collaboration curve
How could the melting point of asprin be measured?
Put sample in capillary tube and heat in melting point apparatus
Why should a pH meter be collaborated before use?
pH meter may get less accurate over time
What substance is most likely to oxidise Iron (II) ions when Iron (II) sulphate is used as a weed killer?
Oxygen
Suggest a value for the pH of a 0.100 mol dm-3 solution of Iron (II) sulphate?
Anything in the range 4.0 – 6.9
What is a chemical hazard when using H2SO4 and what is a safety precaution?
Acid is corrosive
Use gloves or eye protection
Why is it an advantage to add thiocyanate ions to the iron (III) sulphate solution before measuring percentage absorbance?
To intensify the colour
Why is it necessary to maintain a constant temperature in an experiment to measure the equilibrium constant?
Temperature affects the equilibrium constant
What is one method for maintaining a constant temperature in an experiment?
Use a water bath
What is observed when 1-chloropropane and ethanoyl chloride are separately added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate?
1-chloropropane – no visible change
ethanoyl chloride – white precipitate
What equation links hydration enthalpy of Mg2+ ions and Cl- ions, lattice enthalpy and enthalpy of solution?
?Hsolution = ?HL + ??Hhyd Mg2+ ions + ??Hhyd Cl– ions
Using lattice enthalpy, enthalpy of solution of MgCl2 and hydration of Cl- ions, what is the equation to find the enthalpy of hydration of Mg2+ ions?
??Hhyd Mg2+ ions = ?Hsolution – ?HL + ??Hhyd Cl– ions
What is the equation used to calculate standard entropy change?
?S = ES Products – ES reactants
What is the equation to calculate Gibbs free energy?
?G = ?H – T?S
What is the overall reaction for the Contact Process that is catalysed by Vanadium oxide?
SO2 + ?O2 -> SO3
What are the two reactions for the Contact Process that is catalysed by Vanadium oxide?
V2O5 + SO2 > V2O4 + SO3
V2O4 + ?O2 > V2O5
What two equations show how the autocatalyst is involved in the oxidation of C2O42– ions by MnO4– ions?
4Mn2+ + MnO4– + 8H+ > 5Mn3+ + 4H2O
2Mn3+ + C2O42– > 2Mn2+ + 2CO2
Reacton for Sodium with Oxygen

4Na(s) + O2 –> 2Na2O

Reaction for Magnesium with Oxygen
2Mg(s) + O2 –> 2MgO
Reaction for Aluminium with Oxygen
4Al(s) + 3O2 –> 2Al2O3(s)
Reaction for Silicon with Oxygen

Si(s) + O2 –> SiO2(s)

Reaction for Phosphorus with Oxygen
P4 + 5O2 –> P4O10
Reaction for Sulfur with Oxygen
S(s) + O2 –> SO2(g)
Reaction for Sodium Oxide with water.
Na2O(s) + H2O –> 2NaOH(aq)
Reaction for Magnesium Oxide with water.
MgO(s) + H2O –> Mg(OH)2(s) –> Mg(OH)2 (aq)
Reaction for Phosphorus Oxide with water.
P4O10 + 6H2O –> 4H3PO4(aq)
Reaction for Sulfur Dioxide with water
SO2 + H2O –> H2SO3
Reaction for Sulfur Trioxide with water
SO3 + H2O –> H2SO4
What would be observed when Sodium burns in oxygen?
Yellow flame
What would be observed when Magnesium burns in oxygen?
white flame / white light
solid / powder / smoke / ash / white fumes
What would be observed when Aluminium burns in oxygen?
White flame
What would be observed when Silicon burns in oxygen?
White flame
White smoke
What would be observed when Phosphorus burns in oxygen?
White flame
Smoke
What would be observed when Sulphur burns in oxygen?
blue flame
fumes or misty or pungent/choking/smelly gas
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Sodium burns in oxygen?
4Na + O2 -> 2Na2O
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Magnesium burns in oxygen?
2Mg + O2 -> 2MgO
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Aluminium burns in oxygen?
4Al + 3O2 -> 2Al2O3
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Silicon burns in oxygen?
Si + O2 -> SiO2
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Phosphorus burns in oxygen?
4P + 5O2 -> P4O10
What is the equation for the reaction that takes place when Sulphur burns in oxygen?
S + O2 -> SO2
What is the bonding in Sodium oxide?
Ionic
What is the bonding in Magnesium oxide?
Ionic
What is the bonding in Aluminium oxide?
Ionic
What is the bonding in Silicon oxide?
Covalent
What is the bonding in Phosphorus oxide?
Covalent
What is the bonding in Sulphur dioxide?
Covalent
What are the properties of Sodium?
Soft, silver, shiny
Conducts electricity
What are the properties of Magnesium?
Soft, silver, shiny
Conducts electricity
What are the properties of Aluminium?
Easily malleable, silver, shiny
Conducts electricity
What are the properties of Silicon?
Hard, grey-blue solid
Partial conductor of electricity (check this)
What are the properties of Phosphorus?
Red or white solid, low melting and boiling point
Doesn’t conduct electricity
What are the properties of Sulphur?
Yellow solid, low melting and boiling point
Doesn’t conduct electricity
What are the properties of Chlorine?
Green gas, low melting and boiling point
Doesn’t conduct electricity
What are the properties of Argon?
Colourless, odourless gas
Unreactive
What are the observations when Sodium reacts with water?
Violent reaction
Hydrogen released
What are the observations when Magnesium reacts with water?
Slow reaction
Hydrogen released
What are the observations when Magnesium reacts with steam?
Fast reaction
Hydrogen released
What are the observations when Chlorine reacts with water?
Chlorine dissolves
Hydrochloric acid formed
Chloric acid formed
What is the equation for the reaction of Sodium with water?
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
What is the equation for the reaction of magnesium with water?
Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) -> Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
What is the equation for the reaction of magnesium with steam?
Mg(s) + H2O(g) -> MgO(s) + H2(g)
What is the equation for the reaction of Chlorine with water?
Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) <=> HClO(aq) + HCl(aq)
What are the properties of sodium oxide?
White
High melting point (1548K)
What are the properties of the magnesium oxide?
White
High melting point (3125K)
What are the properties of the Aluminium oxide?
White
High melting point (2345K)
What are the properties of the Silicon oxide?
White
High melting point (1883K)
What are the properties of the Phosphorus oxide?
Low melting point (573K)
What are the properties of the Sulphur oxide?
Low melting point (200 for SO2, 290K for SO3)
What is the structure of the sodium oxide?
Giant ionic
What is the structure of the magnesium oxide?
Giant ionic
What is the structure of the aluminium oxide?
Giant ionic
What is the structure of the silicon oxide?
Giant covalent / Macromolecular
What is the structure of the phosphorus oxide?
Molecular
What is the structure of the sulphur oxide?
Molecular
What is observed when the sodium oxide is reacted with water?
Strongly alkaline solution formed
pH 13-14
What is observed when the magnesium oxide is reacted with water?
Weakly alkaline solution formed
pH 10
What is observed when the aluminium oxide is reacted with water?
No reaction
What is observed when the silicon oxide is reacted with water?
No reaction
What is observed when the phosphorus oxide is reacted with water?
Strongly acidic solution produced
pH 0-1
What is observed when sulphur dioxide is reacted with water?
Acidic solution produced pH 2-3
What is observed when sulphur trioxide is reacted with water?
White foggy droplets of acid form pH 0-1
What is the equation for reaction of water with the sodium oxide?
Na2O + H2O -> Na+ + 2OH-
What is the equation/s for reaction of water with the magnesium oxide?

MgO + H2O -> Mg(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 -> Mg2+ + 2OH-

What is the equation for reaction of water with the Aluminium oxide?
No reaction
What is the equation for reaction of water with the silicon oxide?
No reaction
What is the equation for reaction of water with the phosphorus oxide?
P4O10 + 6H2O -> 4H3PO4
What is the equation/s for reaction of water with sulphur dioxide?
SO2 + H2O -> H2SO3
H2SO3 -> H+ + HSO3-
What is the equation/s for reaction of water with sulphur trioxide?
SO3 + H2O -> H2SO4
H2SO4 -> H+ + HSO4-
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when sodium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid?
Na2O + 2HCl -> 2NaCl + H2O
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when magnesium oxide reacts with sulphuric acid?
MgO + H2SO4 -> MgSO4 + H2O
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when aluminium oxide reacts with sulphuric acid?
Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 -> Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when aluminium oxide reacts with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (and water)?
Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O -> 2NaAl(OH)4
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when aluminium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid?
Al2O3 + 6H+ -> 2Al3+ + 3H2O
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when aluminium oxide reacts with sodium hydroxide?
Al2O3 + 2OH– + 3H2O -> 2Al(OH)4–
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when silicon oxide reacts with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide?
SiO2 + 2NaOH -> Na2SiO3 + H20
What is the equation for the reaction that occurs when phosphorus oxide reacts with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide?
12NaOH + P4O10 -> 4Na3PO4 + 6H2O
What is the equation/s for the reaction that occurs when sulphur dioxide reacts with sodium hydroxide?
SO2 + NaOH -> NaHSO3
NaHSO3 + NaOH -> Na2SO3 + H2O
What can be added to sulphate ions to test for them? What would be observed?
BaCl2
White precipitate formed
What can be used to test for ammonia? What would be observed?
Damp litmus paper
Colour change from red to blue
What precipitate is formed and what is the colour of it when NaOH is added to Iron (II) chloride?
Fe(H2O)4(OH)2
Green
How could a test to time the colour change of a solution be improved from looking at the solution in a flask?
-Keep the solution at a constant temp because reaction rate is influenced by temp
-Use a colorimeter to monitor colour change which gives a more accurate time of colour change
How could H2O2 be separated from Ba(NO3)2?
By fractional distillation
Why would it be better to react sulphuric acid with BaO2 rather than nitric acid?
BaSO4 is insoluble so easier to separate from H2O2
Why can’t infrared spectroscopy be used to identify H2O in a solution of H2O2?
They both contain an OH group
Why does hydrogen peroxide decompose more quickly if it is kept in a clear glass bottle rather than a brown one?
Decomposition is accelerated by light
Even if hydrogen peroxide is corrosive, why does a spillage not have long term effects on the environment?
Decomposition products are harmless
What arrangement, reflux or distillation, should be used for the formation of ethanal and why?
Distillation
If reflux, further oxidation would occur and ethanoic acid would be formed
How would you ensure a reading from a pH meter is accurate?
Collaborate with a solution of a known pH and plot a collaboration curve
How could the melting point of asprin be measured?
Put sample in capillary tube and heat in melting point apparatus
Why should a pH meter be collaborated before use?
pH meter may get less accurate over time
What substance is most likely to oxidise Iron (II) ions when Iron (II) sulphate is used as a weed killer?
Oxygen
Suggest a value for the pH of a 0.100 mol dm-3 solution of Iron (II) sulphate?
Anything in the range 4.0 – 6.9
What is a chemical hazard when using H2SO4 and what is a safety precaution?
Acid is corrosive
Use gloves or eye protection
Why is it an advantage to add thiocyanate ions to the iron (III) sulphate solution before measuring percentage absorbance?
To intensify the colour
Why is it necessary to maintain a constant temperature in an experiment to measure the equilibrium constant?
Temperature affects the equilibrium constant
What is one method for maintaining a constant temperature in an experiment?
Use a water bath
What is observed when 1-chloropropane and ethanoyl chloride are separately added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate?
1-chloropropane – no visible change
ethanoyl chloride – white precipitate
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out