Exam 1

A homogenous, molecular mixture of two or more substances
Solution
A general term referring to the relative amount of solute and solvent in a solution. Expressed in various units.
Concentration
A solution whose concentration is such that it is or would be in equilibrium with the pure solute.
Saturated solution
The concentration of the saturated solution of a solute in a solvent. This may be expressed in any concentration units but is often in units such as grams/mL
Solubility
A solution whose concentration is less than that of the saturated solution.
Unsaturated solution
A solution whose concentration is greater than that of the saturated solution. This type of solution is unstable with regard to the precipitation of the solute from solution.
Supersaturated solution
A substance that will, either in the pure liquid state or in solution in a given solvent, conduct an electrical current.
Electrolyte
(For two component solutions with non volatile solute) the vapor pressure, P, of a solution is equal to the product of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po, and the mole fraction, X1, of the solvent in the solution; thus P=X1Po. All values are taken at the same temperature.
Raoult’s Law
For solutions, the four properties of vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure are designated as this. They are characterized by the common property that the value of this does not depend on the nature of the solute, only on the concentration of the solute.
Colligative properties
A term used to refer to mixtures of two liquids to indicated that they are soluble in one another. The general term does not have arbitrary amounts. The term in all proportions indicates that any percentage mixture of the two compounds will form one phase.
Miscible
A term used to indicate that two liquids will not mix to form one phase but will form two phases. The two phases may not be completely pure one or the other liquid.
Immiscible
Uniform in composition at all positions in the sample. The concentration this type of mixture is the same at all positions in the mixture.
Homogeneous
Non-uniform in composition. The concentration will be different at different positions.
Heterogeneous
The component in a mixture which is present in the largest amount in general. If one component is a liquid and the other is a solid, the liquid is almost always considered this. If both components are liquids or both solids, it is not always easy to decide which to consider this and in principle either can be. A general way of thinking here is that this dissolves the solute.
Solvent
The component present in smaller amount in a mixture. This dissolves in the solvent.
Solute
A state in which there is no change in the values of macroscopic properties (such as the concentration of components in the case of a saturated solution in contact with the solute)
Equilibrium
The number of molar masses of solute in one liter of final solution
Molarity (M)
The number of molar masses of solute in one kilogram of solvent.
Molality (m)
The number of gram equivalent weights of solute in one liter of final solution
Normality (N)
The fraction of the total number of moles in a solution that is due to the particular component in question. The symbol is X, and a subscript is used to indicate the component in question.
Mole fraction
The fraction of the total weight that is due to the particular component in question. It is calculated by dividing the weight of the component by the total weight. It is the number of grams of the component in question per gram of total solution. It has no symbol.
Weight fraction
If the weight fraction is multiplied by 100, the result is this. It is the grams of the component in question per 100 grams of total solution.
Weight percent
If the weight fraction is multiplied by 10^6,the result is a concentration term called this. It is the grams of the component in question per one million grams of total solution.
Parts per million
The percent of the total volume that is due to a given component. This of A is the volume of A initially added to the mixture divided by the total final volume of the mixture multiplied by 100.
Volume percent
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