Exam 1

Hodson’s Favorite element
Boron
What is a law?
A consistent observation
What is a theory?
Established hypothesis
Physical Properties are?
characteristic displayed by a sample of matter without undergoing any change in its composition e.g. color
Chemical Properties are?
characteristics displayed as a result of change in composition e.g. flammability
Physical Change
Not permeant, changes in appearance not composition
Chemical change
Change in composition
These are used to create a product
Reactants
Reactants create
A product
Matter is composed of?
Atoms
What is a substance?
A substance is a particular kind of matter with a fixed atomic composition that does not vary from sample to sample
What is an element?
a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance by chemical means
What is a compound?
a substance made up of atoms of two or more elements, chemically combined, with the different kinds of atoms combined in fixed proportions
What is a heterogeneous mixture
A mixture that varies in composition
What is a homogenous mixture
a mixture containing a single substance, solution.
Solids are classified as
Crystalline (regular repeating pattern)
and
amorphous (no arrangement)
Important SI prefixes
Good Men Know Many More Numbers

G 10^9
M10^6
k10^3
m10^-3
M10^-6
n10^-9

Mass is
the amount of matter
weight is
the gravitational pull
What is temperature
the speed of motion of particles at a microscopic level
How do you measure Kelvin
Kelvin (K) = Celsius (?C) + 273.15
How do you determine Fahrenheit?
Fahrenheit (?F) = [1.8 X Celsius (?C)] + 32
1 ml = ____ cm?
1 cm^3
1 cm^3 =?
I mL
Precision is?
How close measurements are to each other
Accuracy is?
How close the measurement is to the actual value
Density =
Mass/volume
What are the basic SI units?
kg, m, s, K, mol, A, Cd
The law of conservation of mass
Mass cannot be created nor destroyed
Law of Definite composition
Regardless of source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass
Law of multiple Proportions
Different proportions of the same elements can create different substances
Who discovered atoms were divisible
JJ thompson, cathode ray
What was the rutherford experiment
Gold, atoms moving around, established the nucleus.
Mass number
Protons and neutrons
Atomic Number
Protons
Element symbol
for example Cl for cholorine
In order for an atom to be neutral
Protons and electrons must be equal
What is an Ion?
An ION is an ATOM or group of ATOMS which carries a net positive or negative charge
Cations
Positive Ion
Anion
Negative Ion
Isotope
Atoms of the same element (same Z) with different numbers of neutrons (different A) are ISOTOPES
Average Atomic Mass
Average Atomic Mass = ? (Fractional abundance ? atomic mass) for each isotope The Atomic Mass of an element is the weighted average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to the atomic mass of carbon-12, and is listed on the PERIODIC TABLE
Metals are
malleable, ductile, lustrous, high melting and boiling point,
Groups of metals
Alkaline metals, Alkaline earth metals, Transition metals and post transition metals
Nonmetal groups
other non metals, halogens and noble gases
The bottom group of the periodic table are the
Lanthanides and Actinides
A mole is
6.022 x 1023
Molar Mass is
The atomic mass (u) of any element
stated in grams (g)
contains 1 mole (mol) of
atoms of that element and is known as its
MOLAR MASS (g/mol)
A diatomic molecule is
a molecule in an uncombined form.
What is empirical formula
the smallest whole number ratio of each type of atom in a compound
A structural formula shows….?
The covalent bonds between atoms in a molecule
single bond, double bond, triple bond
What is an ionic compound?
Forms due to attractions, usually between a metal and a nonmetal
Molecular covalent bonds form between?
Non metals and Non metals
How do you find molar mass of a compound?
By adding the molar masses of each of the elements in the compound
Mass percentage composition?
tells us relative masses of elements combined in a compound
Molecular formula shows
the actual ratio, not a simplification
Can compounds have identical empirical formulas?
Yes
Calculating formula steps
mass percent of each compound
grams of each elements
moles of each element
empirical formula
Calculating molecular and empirical formula
empirical formula * Integral factor = molecular formula
Organic compounds are formed from
C H N O P S
Ionic bond is between
metal and non metal
Metal + nonmetal-ide
NH4+
Ammonium
H3O+
Hydronium
C2H3O2-
Acetate
CO3 2-
Carbonate
HCO3-
Hydrogen Carbonate
ClO-
Hypochorite
ClO2-
Chlorite
ClO3-
Chlorate
ClO4-
Perchlorate
CN-
Cyanide
OH-
Hydroxide
NO3-
Nitrate
NO2-
Nitrite
PO4 3-
Phosphate
PO3 3-
Phosphite
SO4 2-
Sulfate
SO3 2-
Sulfite