Exam 1-Chem

Matter
takes up space and has mass
Element
has only one type of atom (on periodic table)
Compound
at least two types of atoms
Mixtures
cant be eressed by a formula (ex. koolaid)
______ break down chemically, _______ cant break down chemichally
compounds, elements
Mixtures can be broken down physically by…
filtering and evaporation
Heterogenous
can see difference in mixture (oil and water)
Homogenous
same from top to bottom in mixture
building blocks of all matter
elements
rows are called
periods
columns are called
groups
atom
the smallest unit that has element’s properties
Diatomic Molecules
H3,N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Formulas: Metal-Nonmetal
1. Name the Metal
2. Name the Nonmetal + -ide
ex. NaBr = Sodium Bromide
Formulas: Nonmetal-Nonmetal
Use greek prefixes
Greek Prefixes
1. Mono
2. Di
3. tri
4. tetra
5. penta
6. hexa
7. hepta
8. octa
9. nona
10. deca
Combustion
rapid reaction of oxygen with some other element
Never Change
identitiy of atoms, number of atoms, mass
May change
number of molecules, physical states
Allotropes
same element, different arrangement
ozone is in the
stratosphere
# of protones =
# of electrons
elements identity depends on
# of protons
Valence electrons
are on the outermost shell
valence electrons determine
chemical properties
Covalent bond
Share electrons
Lower wavelength =
Lower frequency
shorter wavelenth =
higher frequency
sec-1 , 1/sec, and s-1 are the same as
hertz (Hz)
v =
frequency
upside down y =
wavelength
wavelenght is measured in..
nm (nanometers)
as frequency goes up,
wavelength goes down
radiation is quantized meaning…
it exists only at certain energy levels
light
is a particle, has no mass, moves in waves
unit of energy =
joule
you get the molecular mass by
adding the amu of each atom
reasons for skin cancer rise
ozone depletion, geographic location, tanning
Natural fluctuations for O3 depletion
seasonal variation, sunspot activity cycles, wind, random fluctuations
Free Radicals
unpaired electrons, uncharged, very reactive
CFCs
man made gases, unreactive
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