Exam 2

Substances which dissolve in water to produce conduction solutions of ions
Electrolytes
Molecular covalent compounds and non-electrolytes are
Mostly neutral in water
Substances which do not produce ions in aqueous solutions
Non-electrolytes
Compounds that dissociate to a large extent into ions when dissolved in water
Strong electrolytes
Compounds that dissociate to a small extent into ions when dissolved in water
Weak electrolytes
All substance in the chemical equation are written using their complete formulas as if they were molecules
Molecular equation
All of the strong electrolytes are written as ions
Ionic equation
The ionic equation is reduced to the ______ by removing the spectator ions which appear on each side
Net ionic equation
Ions that undergo no change during the reaction and appear on both sides of the reaction arrow
Spectator ions
A substance that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+1
Acid
A substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH-1
Base
Strong acids and strong bases are _______ electrolytes
Strong
Weak acids and weak bases are _______
electrolytes
Acids (H+) and bases (OH-) react to produced a
Neutral water and a salt
Double-replacement reactions just like the precipitation reactions
Acid-base neutralization reactions
Neutralization reactions are
Ionic
A value which indicates whether an atom is neutral, electron-rich, or electron-poor
Oxidation Number
A monoatomic ion has an oxidation number _____ to its charge
Identical
An atom in a polyatomic ion or in a molecular compound usually has the _____ oxidation number it would have if it were a monoatomic ion
Same
Halogens usually have an oxidation number of
-1
The sum of the oxidation numbers is ____ for a neutral compound and is _____ to the net charge for a polyatomic ion
0, equal
Causes reduction, loses one or more electrons, undergoes oxidation, oxidation number of atom increases
Reducing agent
causes oxidation, gains one or more electrons, undergoes reduction, oxidation number of atom decreases
Oxidizing agent
The periodic table is organized into groups and families because of the organization of _____ in atoms
Electrons
Atomic size ________ across a period and ______ down a group
Decreases, increases
A wave that is characterized by wavelength, frequency, and amplitude
Electromagnetic energy
Frequency and wavelength are ______ related since their product is a constant, the speed of light
Inversely
High energy electromagnetic radiation has _____ frequency and ______ wavelength
High, short
Einstein recognized the threshold energy (energy required)as the quanta needed to release and electron from _______
A nucleus
It is impossible to know precisely where an electron is and what path it follows
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Describes the size and energy level of the orbital, Commonly called the shell, positive integer (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …), as the value increases: the energy increases and the average distance of the electron from the nucleus increases
Principal quantum number (n)
Defines the three-dimensional shaped of the orbital, commonly called the subshell
Angular-momentum quantum number (l)
Defines the spatial orientation of the orbital, there are 2l + 1 values of ___, and they can have any integral value from -l to +l
Magnetic quantum number (ml)
Spherical about the nucleus and increase in size with increasing nodes (area of zero probability (wave behavior))
S orbitals
Dumbbell shapes about 1 axis. The x-axis represents l = -1 , the y-axis for l = 0 and z-axis for l = +1
P orbital
The nuclear charge actually felt by an electron
Effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
A description of which orbitals are occupied by electrons
Electron configuration
Orbitals that have the same energy level. For examples, the three p orbitals in a given subshell
Degenerate orbitals
The lowest-energy configuration
Ground-state electron configuration
A guide for determining the filling order of orbitals
Aufbau principle
Lower-energy orbitals fill before higher-energy orbitals; and orbital can only hold two electrons, which must have opposite signs; if two or more degenerate orbitals are available, follow Hund’s rule
Rules of the aufbau principles
If two or more orbitals with the same energy are available, one electron goes into each until all are half-full. The electrons in the half-filled orbitals all have the same spin
Hund’s rule
The group 1A atoms are largest in a period because of the ____ effective nuclear charge
Low
Halogens are smallest in a period because of their ______ effective nuclear charge
High
The main group non-metals _____ electrons to reach nearest noble gas electron configurations
Gain
The main group metals ____ electrons to reach the nearest noble gas electron configuration
Lose
Because metals lose electrons, the ions are ______ than the element, the degree of change depends on the number of electrons lost
Smaller
A gain of electrons by non-metals decreases the effective nuclear charge, so the anions are _____ than the element
Larger
The amount of energy necessary to remove the highest-energy electron from an isolated neutral atom in the gaseous state
Ionization energy (Ei)
Ionization energy _______ with a low effective nuclear charge and large size
Decreases
Noble gases have the ______ ionization energy and order _____ from Li>Ba>K>Rb, etc.
Highest
1A metals have the ______ ionization energy
Lowest
The energy released when a neutral atom gains an electron to form an anion
Electron affinity
The amount of energy that must be supplied to break up an ionic solid into individual gaseous ions. Determines solubility.
Lattice energy (U)
Main-group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with eight outer-shell electrons
Octet rule
Metals tend to have _____ ionization energy and ____ electron affinity. they tend to lose one or more electrons.
Low, low
Non-metals tend to have ____ ionization energy and ____ electron affinity. They tend to gain one or more electrons.
High, high
Transition metals, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals do not follow the
Octet rule
Powerful reducing agents, metallic, bright and silvery, malleable, good conductors of electricity, relatively soft, very reactive, and occur only in salts, ionization energy decreases down the group
Group 1A elements: alkali metals
Elements are made from the cations by _______ that uses electrical energy to supply electrons
Electrolysis
Powerful reducing agents, metallic, bright and silvery, relatively soft, not as reactive, occur only in salts, higher melting point and ionization energy
Group 2A elements: Alkaline earth metals
Metallic, bright and silvery, good conductors of electricity, reacts well with oxygen (forms an oxide coating), does not react well with water due to the oxide coating, found in many minerals
Group 3A elements
Powerful oxidizing agents, non-metals, exist as diatomics in elemental form, very reactive occur only in salts and minerals, low melting points, high electron affinity
Group 7A: Halogens
Colorless and odorless, non-metals, very unreactive, occur naturally as atomic gases
Group 8A: Noble gases
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