Exam 2

binary ionic compound
contain two elements; metal and nonmental
aqueous solution
when a compound dissolves in water
ternary ionic compounds
contains (3) elements; with at least one metal and one nonmetal
binary molecular compound
contain two elements that are both nonmetals
binary acid
an aqueous solution of a compound containing hydrogen and one nonmetal
ternary oxyacid
an aqueous solution of a compound containing hydrogen, a nonmetal and oxygen
a positive ion
cation
a negative ion
anion
Iron’s ions
2+, 3+; Iron (II); Iron (III)
copper’s ions
+ and 2+; Copper (I); Copper (II)
What is the stock system?
Naming transitional metal cations
Latin system
naming metal cations having two common ionic charges
metals tend to form _____ ions
positive
nonmetals tend to form ______ ions.
negative
metal ions are named by…
latin root and lower charge receives -ous and higher recieves -ic
nonmetal ions are named by ….
taking the stem and adding the suffix -ide.
tin’s ions
2+ and 4+; Tin(II) and Tin(IV); Sn
lead’s ions
2+ and 4+; Lead(II) and Lead(IV); Pb
cobalt’s ions
2+ and 3+; Coblat(II) and Cobalt(III); Co
mercury’s ions
2+ and Hg2^2+;
isoelectronic
becoming isoelectronic with another group in the periodic table because of a loss or gain of electrons.
When a polyatomic anion consists of one or more elements and oxygen it is referred to as:
oxyanion
an example of an oxyanion
NO3^- (nitrate ion)
When a polyatomic anion has two forms, the one with more oxygen atoms ends with a _____ and the one with less ends with _______.
-ate; _ite
Nitrite ion
NO2^-
CN-
Cyanide ion
OH-
hydroxide ion
hydroxide ion
OH-
cyanide ion
CN-
NH4+
Ammonium ion (cation)
Most oxyanions have the suffix:
-ate
formula unit
the simplest representation particle in an ionic compound;
what charge is a formula unit?
Neutral
Aluminum Ion
AL 3+
Barium Ion
Ba 2+
Cadmium ion
Ca 2+
Cobalt (II) ion
Co 2+
Cobalt (III) ion
Co 3+
Copper (I) ion
Cu +
Chromium (III) ion
Cr 3+
Hydrogen ion
H+
Iron (II) ion
Fe 2+
Iron (III) ion
Fe 3+
Lead (II) ion
Pb 2+
Lead (IV) ion
Pb 4+
Lithium Ion
Li +
Magnesium ion
Mg 2+
Manganese (II) ion
Mn 2+
Mercury (I) ion
Diatomic(Hg2) 2+
Mercury (II) ion
Hg 2+
Nickle (II) ion
Ni 2+
Potassium ion
K+
Silver Ion
Ag+
Sodium ion
Na +
Strontium ion
Sr 2+
Tin (II) ion
Sn 2+
Tin (IV) ion
Sn 4+
Zinc ion
Zn 2+
Bromide ion
Br –
Chloride ion
Cl-
Fluoride ion
F-
iodide ion
I-
nitride ion
N 3-
Oxide ion
O 2-
Phosphide ion
P 3-
Sulfide ion
S 2-
acetate ion
C2H3O2-
carbonate ion
CO3 2-
Chlorate ion
ClO3-
Chlorite ion
ClO2-
Chromate ion
CrO4 2-
cyanide ion
CN-
Dalton model of atom
Proposed all atoms are composed of small paticles
What two scientific principals did Dalton rely on to come to his conclusion about atoms?
The law of conservation of mass and the law of definite composition
Who established the law of conservation of mass?
Lavoisier
Who established the law of definite composition?
Proust
What did Dalton discover?
The existence of atoms
Dalton proposed that the charge of every atom was…
neutral
Thomposon’s model of the atom was considered to be similar to what shape? Why?
Plum pudding; because the electrons and protons were similar to the plums and the sphere would be the pudding.
What experiment did Thompson use to help him determine his theory?
Cathode ray tube
Who calculated, named and determined the charge of an electron?
Thompson
Rutherford is known for his experiments using…
radiation; alpha ray and beta ray
Which type of radiation is not affected by a magnetic field?
Gamma ray
Rutherford is known for the….
nucleus. He defined that an atom has electrons around a nucleus which housed the protons
Alpha rays are composed of
helium atoms that have been stripped of their electrons
Rutherford proposed the mass of the_____ was larger in comparison to the electrons.
Nucleus
In the gold foil experiment, what was discovered?
that the atom has a larger nucleus and the alpha particles were reflected because of the dense positively charged nucleus of the gold
The atomic number is the number of
protons
mass number
neutrons + protons
What is a shorthand way of determining # of neutrons?
mass number – atomic number = neutrons
The number of ______ determines what the element will be.
Protons
Where is the atomic number located when using atomic notation?
The lower left hand corner of element symbol
The higher the frequency the ______ the energy
higher
In the visible light scale, the frequency of wavelength go from _____ to ______ when looking from violet to red.
high to low
What is a photon?
An individual energy of light
“s” sublevel holds a max of ____ electrons
2
“p” sublevel holds a max of ____ electrons.
6
The “d” sublevel holds a max of ___ electrons.
10
The “f” sublevel holds a max of ___ electrons.
14
When drawing the electrons for the electron dot formulas, the ________ is in the middle and the _________ electrons are drawn.
atomic symbol; valence.
the horizontal portion of the periodic table are called:
Periods
how many p orbitals are there?
3; each hold two electrons per orbital
what is the shape of the p orbitals?
dumbbell
What is a wavelength?
The distance the light wave travels to complete one cycle.
frequency
number of wavelength refers to the number of wave cycles completed in each second.
What did Niels Bohr discover about the atom?
That electrons travel in a fixed-energy orbit/ energy level.
When an electron is excited it moves from______.
a higher energy level and back to a lower energy level
When is a photon emitted?
Each time an electron drops to a lower level
A + B —> AB
Combination reaction
AB —-> A + B
Decomposition Reaction
A + BZ —> AZ + B
single-replacement reaction
AX + BZ —> AZ + B
double-replacement reaction
HX + BOH —> BX + HOH
Neutralization reaction
On the activity series, when a metal is above another in the series, the metal below is more or less likely to react with the one above?
The metal below is less likely to react because it is lower on the series. The higher the metal on the series, the more reactive
What are the seven diatomic molecules?
Br2; Cl2; F2; H2; I2; N2; O2
(Brown Cloud Farts Happen I N Oklahoma)
Niels Bohr’s model of the atom:
electrons circling around the nucleus in fixed-energy levels
the vertical portion of the periodic table is called:
groups or families
Within a group or a period are elements similar in their chemical behavior?
In a group because of the electrons (same amt. of valence)
How many electrons are in the 3rd energy level?
18 because 3s; 3p; 3d. s holds 2; p holds 6; and d holds 10.
How are the p orbitals situated in regards to the nucleus and eachother?
They intersect the nucleus and are oriented at right angles to each other.
What can be said about s orbitals, especially their relative size to one another?
That 1s will be much smaller in size tan 3s.
What shape are s orbitals?
sphere
What can be said about an electron orbital? Is it sure that we will find an electron there?
When speaking of electron orbitals, there is a higher probability that we will find an electron there.
ionization energy refers to:
the amount of energy needed to remove an electron in the gaseous state
Ionization energy increases as you go from _________ to _______ in the period.
Left to right; bottom to top
The atomic radius increases as we go ______ to ______ on the periodic table.
bottom; top in a group
right to left (row)
Metallic character increases as you go _____ to ______ across a period and ______ to ________ across a group.
right to left across a period
top to bottom across a group
The left side of the periodic table tend to be _________.
Metals
The right side of the periodic table tend to be _________.
nonmetals
Where are the noble gases located on the periodic table?
Group 18, the last column
Where are the representative elements located?
To the left and right of the transitional metals. The groups with A
Where are the transitional metals located?
the middle of the periodic table.
Where are the chemical behaviors of the elements most predictable?
The representative elements
Where is the lanthanide series?
They are located with the inner transition elements that begins with lanthanide.
Where is the actinide series?
They are located in the inner-transition metals as a second part after the lanthanide series.
Where are the halogens located?
They are group 17 the second group from the left.
Where are the alkali metals?
The first group. The first column of the periodic table.
Where are the alkali earth metals located?
They are group 2 in the periodic table. The second column.
When naming binary molecular compounds, what system is used?
You must use the greek prefixes which refer to the number of atoms present in the compound.
What is the Greek prefix for 4?
tetra
what is the Greek prefix for 5?
Penta
What is the Greek prefix for 10
deca
what is the Greek prefix for 6?
hexa
What is the Greek prefix for 7?
Hepta
what is the Greek prefix for 9?
Nona
When naming binary ionic compounds, what must occur before the naming begins?
There must be neutral atoms and the equation must be balanced.
Sulfate ion
SO4 2-
Hypochlorite ion
ClO-
Phosphate ion
PO4 3-
Sulfate ion
SO4 2-
Sulfite ion
SO3 2-
How many moles would equal Avogadro’s number?
1
What is the molar mass of a substance?
atomic mass of a molecule given in grams.
g/mol = MM
What is the molar volume of a gas at STP?
22.4 L
One mole of gas
22.4 L
How do you calculate gas’ density @ STP?
the formula’s mass/ 22.4L
What are the steps of percent composition?
First, find out the molar mass of the compound. Then take each individual weight take it over the overall weight multiplied by 100%. Always equals 100.
How do you find the empirical formula when you work with percent composition?
You wold take the smallest value and put all the values on the numerator with the smallest value in the denominator.