exam 2

“Likes dissolve Likes”

Ionic solids generally dissolve better in Polar solvents like water

 

whereas a molecular compound usually favors non-polar solvents.

 

moleculues with OH- groups in its structure will dissolve in water due to hydrogen bonding with water enhancing solubility

Percentage % by mass

(g of solute/ g of solute + g of solvent) * 100%

 

Molarity (M)
(Moles of solute/ volume of solution in (L))

pure solvent vs. solution

Pure solvent             Solution

 

vapor pressure-  higher                    lower

 

boiling point-       lower                     higher

 

frezzing point-    higher                   lower

Molality (m)
=( mole of solute/ mass of solvent)
ΔT=K* molality (m)

ΔT= difference of two frezzing points or the differnce of two boiling points

 

K= the constant

 

m=molality (mole of solute/kg of solvent)

solvent-solute interations > solvent-solvent and solute- solute interations

 solution forms

Solvent- solute interations= solvent-solvent and solute-solute interations

solution forms

solvent-solute interations< solvent-solvent and solute-solute interations

solution may or may not form, depending on relative disparity
Osmosis
The movement of wayer from low solute concentration to hight solute concentration through a semipermiable membrane, thus generating osmotic pressure
ionic solutions
ionic compounds dissociate in soulution thus doubleing the concentration
colloid

a mixture in which a dispersed substance is finely divided in a dispersing medium.

 

size between 1nm-1000nm

phase diagram
[image]
rate law
Rate=k(A)m(B)n
1st order
concentration changes and the rate also changes at the same magnitude
0th order
concentration changes however rate remains unchanged
2nd order
when concentration changes and rate change at a greater magnitude