exam 2

“Likes dissolve Likes”

Ionic solids generally dissolve better in Polar solvents like water


whereas a molecular compound usually favors non-polar solvents.


moleculues with OH- groups in its structure will dissolve in water due to hydrogen bonding with water enhancing solubility

Percentage % by mass

(g of solute/ g of solute + g of solvent) * 100%


Molarity (M)
(Moles of solute/ volume of solution in (L))

pure solvent vs. solution

Pure solvent             Solution


vapor pressure-  higher                    lower


boiling point-       lower                     higher


frezzing point-    higher                   lower

Molality (m)
=( mole of solute/ mass of solvent)
ΔT=K* molality (m)

ΔT= difference of two frezzing points or the differnce of two boiling points


K= the constant


m=molality (mole of solute/kg of solvent)

solvent-solute interations > solvent-solvent and solute- solute interations

 solution forms

Solvent- solute interations= solvent-solvent and solute-solute interations

solution forms

solvent-solute interations< solvent-solvent and solute-solute interations

solution may or may not form, depending on relative disparity
The movement of wayer from low solute concentration to hight solute concentration through a semipermiable membrane, thus generating osmotic pressure
ionic solutions
ionic compounds dissociate in soulution thus doubleing the concentration

a mixture in which a dispersed substance is finely divided in a dispersing medium.


size between 1nm-1000nm

phase diagram
rate law
1st order
concentration changes and the rate also changes at the same magnitude
0th order
concentration changes however rate remains unchanged
2nd order
when concentration changes and rate change at a greater magnitude