Exam 2

Ionic

Transfer of electrons, electrostatic attraction between ions between metals and nonmetals. 

Formed by the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions after electron transfer.

The larger the difference in electron affinity between the 2 bonding atims, the more like an ionic (polar) bond will be formed.

 

Covalent
Bond with sharing of electron
Energetics of Ionic Bonding
Requires a certain amount of Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) to remove electrons. When an atom gains an electron a certain amount of energy, known as the Electron Affinity, is released.
Exothermic
When (Delta)H is negative
Polar bond
A bond in which a dipole exists
Pi Bond
Orbitals have a side-by-side overlap
Sigma Bond
Orbitals have a head-to-head overlap
Molecular Orbital Theory
If waves interact constuctively, the resulting orbital is lower in energy: a bonding molecular orbital
Paramagnatism
Have at least one unpaired electeon and are attracted to a magnetic field.
Diamagnetism
Have no unpaired electrons and are weakly repelled by a magnetic field
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Gases consist of large numbers of molecules that are in continuous, random motion. The combined vvolume of all the molecules of the gas is negligible relative to the total volume in which the gas is contained. Attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules are assumed to be negligible. Energy can be transferred between molecules during collisions, but the averagy Kinetic Energy doesn’t change as long the the temperature of the gas remains constant. The average Kinetic Energy is proportional to the absolute temperature
Effusion
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny hole (orifice) into an evacuated space