# exam 2

 Ion-Ion
 intermolecular force between two Ionic molecules ex. Na+Cl-
 Ion-Dipole
 ontermolecular force between ion & polar molecule
 Dipole-Dipole
 intermolecular forces between polar molecule & polar molecule
 Dipole induced Dipole
 intermolecular forces between polar molecule & non-polar molecule
 London Forces
 Exist for all species (polar or non-polar) but only become significant only when all other forces do not exist   The strength of london force depends upon the size (or molecular weight) of the species.   Bigger/Heavy=Stronger Force
 Bond strength order from strongest to weakest.
 1) H group bonds 2)dipole-dipole 3)London Forces 4) molercular weight
 Vaporization of a liquid is dependant on what?
 TEMPERATURE! ↑ liquid temp= ↑ vaporization rate   ↑ surface area=↑ vaporization rate   ↓ strength of intermolecular forces=↑ vaporization rate   ΔHvap in kJ/mole
 Suppose for H2O @ 25°c is 44kJ/mole. how much heat is needed to vaporise 36mL of H2O?
 * What is being vaporised? *mL→g *g→mole *mole→kJ   (36mLH2O)(1gH2O/1mLH2O)(1moleH2O/18gH2O)(44kJ/1mole)=88kJ
 Hydrogen Bonds
 sort of super dipole-dipole force.  Hydrogen bonds strongly with F, O, and, N
 Vapor pressure and dynamic equilibrium
 when a system in dynamic equilibrium is disturbed, the system responds so as to minimize the disturbance and return to a state of equilibrium!   Dynamic equilibrium: Rate of evaporation=Rate of condensation
 Simple cubic
 [image]   8 corners
 Faced center cubic
 [image] 8 corners+ 6 faces
 Body centered cubic
 [image] 8 corners+ 1 body
 What makes a good electrical conductor?
 A) you must have charge… think ions   B) Ions must be free to move
 WHy are metals good conductors?
 they do not hold onto there electrons very strongly allowing them to move freely
 ΔHsub
 =ΔHfus+ΔHvap
 molecular solid
 ice
 network covalent solid
 diamond
 t1/2
 half life- the time required for the concentration of a reactant to fall to one half of its initial value.
 enzyme
 are biological catalysts thats increase the rates of biological reactions
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