Exam 2 Material

Chemical Bonds
the attractive force that holds two atoms together
in a more complex unit.
Ionic Bond
a chemical bond formed through the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or group of atoms to another atom or group of atoms
Ionic Compound
a compound in which ionic bonds are present
Covalent bond
is a chemical bond formed through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms
Covalent compound
A molecular compound is a compound in which covalent bonds are present.
Valence Electrons
is an electron in the outermost electron shell of a representative element or noble-gas element.
Participates in bonding.
Lewis electron dot symbol
The chemical symbol of an element surrounded
by dots equal in number to the number of valence electrons present in atoms of the
element.
Group number
an identifier used to describe the column of the standard periodic table in which the element appears.

Example:

Group 1: alkali metals
Group 2: alkaline earth metals
Group 17: halogens
Group 18: noble gases

Outermost electron shell
The valence electron shell
where bonding takes place
Cation
Positive Ion
Anion
Negative Ion
Octet Rule
In forming compounds, atoms of elements lose, gain, or share electrons in such a way as to produce a noble-gas electron configuration for each of the atoms involved
isoelectronic series
a group of atoms/ions that have the same number of electrons. Examples. N3-, O2-, F-
ionic charge
the electrical charge of an ion
binary ionic
is an ionic compound in which one element present is a
metal and the other element present is a nonmetal. The metal is always present as the
positive ion, and the nonmetal is always present as the negative ion.
ternary ionic compounds
consists of three compounds usually an element (i.e. metal) and a polyatomic ion.
e.g. of ploy atomic ion Nitrate (NO3), Chlorate(ClO3), Chloric (ClO4), Sulphate (SO4)
Chemical formula MxNy
?
Polyatomic Ions
A polyatomic ion is a molecule made up of 2 or more atoms that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge.
How many bonds can O form?
2 bonds
How many bonds can H form?
1 bond
Dipoles
intermolecular force that occurs between polar
molecules.
lone pair of electrons
a lone pair is a valence electron pair which is not shared with another atom and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
VSEPR Theory
a lone pair is a valence electron pair which is not shared with another atom and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Ab4
tetrahydral
AB3E
Pyramidal
Ab2
linear
AB2E2
angular or bent
AB3
trigonal planar
Single Bonds

Double Bonds

Triple Bonds

bond with one pair of electrons
bond with 2
bond with 3
sigma ? and pi ? bonds
.A sigma bond is just a single bond.

2.When you have a double bond, you have 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond.

A pi bond is any bond formed after the single bond is formed

mono
di
tri
tetra
penta
hexa
hepta
octa
nona
deca
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CO
Carbon monoxide
CO2
Carbon dioxide
hybridization
the idea that atomic orbitals fuse to form newly hybridized orbitals, which in turn, influences molecular geometry and bonding properties.
Sp3
Tetrahydral
109.5
Sp2
trigonal planar
120
sp
linear
180
molecular geometry
shape of a molecule
Electronegativity x
hat describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself
Boyle’s law
PV = cnst
ideal gas law
Pv = nRT
R
Ideal gas constant
amu
1.6606 x 10 ^ -24
charles law
V/T=cnst
Dalton’s law
Pt=Pa+Pb+Pc
pressure
force/area
1 atm
760 mm HG = 760 torr
R
0.08205 (L atm)/(k mol)
Avogrado’s hypothesis
V/n=cnst
endothermic
a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings in the form of heat
endergonic
the total amount of energy is a loss (it takes more energy to start the reaction than what you get out of it)
thermal expansion
change in dimensions of a material resulting from a change in temperature.
exogonic
an action or object coming from within a system
kinetic molecular theory
experimental observations about gas
exothermic
a chemical or physical reaction that releases heat
vapor pressure
pressure of a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases in a closed container.
compressibility
a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.