Exam 3

first order rate law for nuclear decay
ln (Nt/No)
192Hg undergoing electron capture decay
19280Hg + 0-1e -> 19279Au
226Ra undergoing alpha decay
22688Ra -> 22286Rn + 42He
tritium and deuterium undergoing fusion to produce an alpha particle and a neutron
31H + 21H -> 42He
110In undergoing positron emission
11049In -> 110Cd + 01n
63Ni undergoing beta decay
63Ni -> 6329Cu + 0-1e
delta G=
nFE
Q (pressure) or K (equilibrium) =
products/ reactants
spontaneous
less order
melting of a solid is ______ above it’s melting point and ________ below it’s melting point
spontaneous, nonspontaneous
2 gas -> 3 gas, entropy?
delta S positive, entropy increases
solid melts, S?
increases
gas liquifies, S?
decreases
t increases, s?
increases
does a g or a s have higher S?
gas
higher pressure, s?
higher
into more solution, S?
increases
delta G =
delta H – T delta S
delta G is positive
process is nonspontaneous
delta G with R
-RT ln K
x + O2 -> y, delta G sign?
x -> y + O2, delta G sign?
-, +
E knot positive in voltaic cells
spontaneous
oxidation number up
oxidation
anode is
oxidized
Eknot cell
Eknot red (cathode)- Eknot red (anode)
E=
Eknot – (o.o592V/n) log Q
Q in voltaic cell
lower concentration/ higher = anode/cathode
Gray
absorbed dose, 1 J radiation/ kg of tissue, Rad
Sievert
(Sv), effective dose, 1 Gy x RBE (relative biological effectiveness
fusion
requires high temps, pushes 2 positively charged particles together
t1/2=
0.693/k
A =
kN
A is
# of disintegrations per unit time
k is
decay constant
N is
number of radioactive nuclei
delta S univ=
delta S sys + delta Ssurr
balancing redox steps
determine half reactions, balance according to mass (without H and O, then with H and O), balance according to charge, make electrons cancel, verify results
H and O in acidic
O by adding H2O, H by adding H+
H and O in basic
H by adding H+, neutralize H+ by adding OH-, convert H+ and OH to H2O