EXAM 3

alkali metals
form basic hydrides and oxides
alkali earths – calcium
bone, concrete, tooth enamel, chalk, limestone
aluminum
most abundant compound in elemental form in the earths crust and the most common element in the metallic form paper, ruby, sapphire, topaz
nitrogen compounds
ammonia (the useful form of N that plants love), phosphates (useful form of P that plants love); the source of elemental nitrogen is in the air (75% of earth’s atmosphere); relying on bolts of lightning to react with the elemental nitrogen; to rely on bacteria that fix nitrogen (organic farmers); to produce manufacture ammonia using the Naber process
sulfuric acid
h2so4 is the most commonly produced compund in the world
properties of F
smallest atoms and ions, largest electronegativites, largest ionization energies, elemental form is a very reactive oxidizing agent, compounds that just have to add a single electron to be happy, second thing you think of when you make a salt
processes we need to know
haber, ostwald, bayer, contact, hall
haber
produces nh3, ammonia, which fertilizes the earth
ostwald
HNO3 is nitric acid, not only one of the strong acids, but like sulfuric acid, a really fine oxidizing agent, it is made in vast quantities commercially using the Ostwald process in an 8-electron oxidation process

4NH3 + 5O2 >> 4NO + 6H2O
@NO + O2 >> 2NO2

bayer
aluminum is mined as bauxite an impire aluminum exide and turned into alumina Al2O3 by this process
contact
hall
inexpensive way to produce aluminum.
4Al(+3) + 6O(-2) + 3C >> 4Al + 3CO2
most commonly manufactured chemicals in order (5)

sulfuric acid

ammonia

phosphoric acid

sodium hydroxide

chlorine

famous gems
Onyx, Emerald, Ruby, Sapphire, Topaz
onyx
silicas SiO2
emerald
beryllium oxide and Cr(+3)
ruby
aluminum oxide and Cr(+3)
sapphire
aluminum oxide and Fe(+3) and Ti(+4)
topaz
aluminum oxide and Fe(+3)
famous process that links monomers
deydration
1
meth
2
eth
3
prop
4
but
5
pent
6
hex
7
hept
8
oct
9
non
10
dec
11
undec
12
dodec
double bonds are more reactive
the two essential fatty acids you must eat to survive
linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
OH on sugar makes sticky
what makes up dna and rna?
sugar + base + phosphate
science fiction in the carbon group
silica “people talk about reading sci fi on silica based life forms”
soda-line glass-made from metls of SiO2 and sodium oxide and calcium oxide
borosilicates (pyrex) – formed from melts of SiO2 with B2O3
silicas: amethyst, agate and onxy
silicates: asbestos
aluminosilicates: mica