Exam 3 Intro to Endocrinology, Hypothalamus, & Pituitary

What do the endocrine glands produce and secrete?
Hormones
How do hormones travel in the body?
Bloodstream
Where do hormones travel to in the body?
Targets specific tissue/organ/gland
Define Tropic Hormone
Causes its target cell to secrete its own specific hormone
Define Effector Hormone
Causes a direct effect on the target tissue
5 Functions of Hormones
*Metabolism & Production of Energy
*Maintain homeostasis & growth
*Sexual maturation & Reproduction
*Resistance & Response to stress
*Affects moods
Which class of hormone does the following describe:
Water insoluble
Requires a carrier protein
Slower production; Sustained effect
Steroid Hormones
Which class of hormone does the following describe:
Water Soluble
No carrier protein required
Quicker action
Shorter Half-Life
Protein Hormones
Which class of hormone enters the target cell nucleus and binds to nuclear chromatin?
Steroid Hormones
Which class of hormone induces formation of mRNA which initiates synthesis of proteins, enzymes, etc.
Steroid Hormones
What are Steroid Hormones derived from?
Cholesterol
Which class of hormone binds with specific receptors on the cell membrane?
Protein Hormones
Protein hormones can activate the conversion of ATP to ______, which activates other enzymes to produce a rapid biologic effect
cAMP
Protein hormones can stimulate _____ levels in cytoplasm. This then activates other enzymes to produce a biological effect.
Calcium
Which class of hormones shares properties of both steroid and protein classes?
Amines
Define Open Loop Feedback Mechanism
A decrease in one substance causes the increase of another substance or vise versa
A drop in serum glucose causes the rise of ______
Glucagon
A rise in serum glucose causes the rise of ______
Insulin
What type of factors come out of the Hypothalamus and act on the Anterior Pituitary?
Inhibiting & Releasing Factors
What type of factors come out of the Hypothalamus and act on the Posterior Pituitary?
ADH & Oxytocin
What type of factors come out of the Anterior Pituitary and act on the Thyroid?
TSH
What type of factors come out of the Anterior Pituitary and act on the Breasts?
PRL
What type of factors come out of the Anterior Pituitary and act on the Adrenal Cortex?
ACTH
What type of factors come out of the Anterior Pituitary and act on the Ovaries/Testes?
FSH/LH
What type of factors come out of the Anterior Pituitary and act in/on General?
GH
What type of factors come out of the Adrenal Medulla?
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Dopamine
What is the result of the release of TSH?
T3T4
What is the result of the release of PRL?
Milk
What is the result of the release of GH?
Growth
What is the result of the release of FSH/LH – males?
Testosterone
What is the result of the release of FSH/LH – females?
Estrogen
Progesterone
What type of factors come out of the Posterior Pituitary and act on the kidneys?
ADH
What is the result of the release of TSH on the Parathyroid?
Calcium regulation
What is the result of ADH release on the kidneys?
Water retention
What is the result of the release of ACTH on the Adrenal Cortex?
Cortisol
Androgens
Aldosterone
What 2 substances do the kidneys release and regulate?
Renin
Erythropoietin
What 2 substances do the pancreas release and regulate?
Insulin
Glucagon
What 2 areas of the human body does Oxytocin have an effect on?
Uterus/Breast
Which hormone is the following:
Effector
Target Organ: Muscle, bone, liver, adipose, others
Action: General growth & Metabolic regulation
GH
Which hormone is the following:
Effector
Target Organ: Breast and others
Action: Lactation
PRL
Which hormone is the following:
Tropic
Target Organ:Thyroid
Action: Thyroid hormone synthesis/release
TSH
Which hormone is the following:
Tropic
Target Organ: Ovary, Testes
Action: Estrogen synthesis, spermatogenesis
FSH
Which hormone is the following:
Tropic
Target Organ: Ovary, Testes
Action: Ovulation, Testosterone synthesis
LH
Which hormone is the following:
Tropic
Target Organ: Adrenal cortex, Skin
Action: Corticoid synthesis, pigmentation
ACTH
What is considered the neural connection to the other brain centers; It is connected to the pituitary by the pituitary stalk
Hypothalamus
True or False:
Hormone levels in the hypothalamus are too small to quantitate
True
What does the Hypothalamus secrete?
Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones
Dysfunction of the Hypothalamus results in what?
Tumors, inflammation, and degenerative diseases
The posterior pituitary secretes what 2 hormones?
Vasopressin (ADH)
Oxytocin
The anterior pituitary secretes what 6 hormones?
GH
FSH
LH
TSH
ACTH
PRL
Which hormone is responsible for uterine contractions and lactation?
Oxytocin
Vasopressin/ADH is triggered by what?
Increased serum osmolality or blood pressure
What does Vasopressin/ADH cause to happen in the distal tubules and collecting ducts?
Water retention
What hormone constricts smooth muscle to increase blood pressure?
Vasopressin/ADH
What is Vasopressin/ADH inhibited by?
Cold, drugs, caffeine, & alcohol
What disorder/disease is associated with HYPOsecretion of Vasopressin/ADH?
Diabetes insipidus
What disorder is associated with HYPERsecretion of Vasopressin/ADH?
Too much water retention
The following are associated with what type of secretion of Vasopressin/ADH:
Increased Na
Increased Plasma Oosmolaltiy
High Volume Dilute Urine
Dehydration
HYPOsecretion
What disease/disorder is associated with the following:
Increased Na
Increased Plasma Oosmolaltiy
High Volume Dilute Urine
Dehydration
Diabetes insipidus
The following are associated with what type of secretion of Vasopressin/ADH:
Decreased osmolality
Electrolyte imbalances
Increased Blood Pressure
Low Volume Concentration Urine
HYPERsecretion
What hormone does the following:
Helps bones lengthen and expand
Helps transport and induce production of AA in cells
Aids in glucose metabolism & lipolysis
Growth Hormone
Which hormone targets cartilage, adipose tissue, and striated muscle?
Growth Hormone
True or False:
Other pituitary hormones must be present for GH to work
True
True or False:
GH is released in pulses every 4-6 hours
False
True or False:
GH is released in pulses every 2-3 hours
True
What is the result of HYPOsecretion of GH in Kids?
Slow growth development
Hypoglycemia
What is the result of HYPOsecretion of GH in Adults?
Tiredness, weight gain, depression
What is the result of HYPERsecretion of GH in Kids?
Gigantism with retardation
What is the result of HYPERsecretion of GH in Adults?
Acromegaly (bone and tissue overgrowth); usually a tumor
Which hormone initiates and maintains postpartum lactation?
Prolactin
The following symptoms are associated with which condition?
Amenorrhea
Erectile Dysfunction
Infertility
Headache
Prolactinemia
A deficiency in Prolactin will result in what?
Lack of postpartum lactation
You use dilutional prolactin to avoid what?
Prozone effect
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone tells the thyroid gland to secrete what?
T3
T4
In women, what does Luteinizing Hormone regulate and synthesize?
Ovulation
Progesterone synthesis
In men, what does Luteinizing Hormone stimulate?
Testosterone production
What does the Adrenocorticotropin Hormone stimulate the adrenal cortex to produce?
Glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol
What is considered the neural connection to the other brain centers; It is connected to the pituitary by the pituitary stalk
Hypothalamus
True or False:
Hormone levels in the hypothalamus are too small to quantitate
True
What does the Hypothalamus secrete?
Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones
Dysfunction of the Hypothalamus results in what?
Tumors, inflammation, and degenerative diseases
The posterior pituitary secretes what 2 hormones?
Vasopressin (ADH)
Oxytocin
The anterior pituitary secretes what 6 hormones?
GH
FSH
LH
TSH
ACTH
PRL
Synthetic Oxytocin is now being used to do what?
Induce labor
Vasopressin/ADH is triggered by what?
Increased serum osmolality or blood pressure
What does Vasopressin/ADH cause to happen in the distal tubules and collecting ducts?
Water retention
What hormone constricts smooth muscle to increase blood pressure?
Vasopressin/ADH
What is Vasopressin/ADH inhibited by?
Cold, drugs, caffeine, & alcohol
What disorder/disease is associated with HYPOsecretion of Vasopressin/ADH?
Diabetes insipidus
What disorder is associated with HYPERsecretion of Vasopressin/ADH?
Too much water retention
What is the result of HYPOsecretion of GH in Kids?
Slow growth development
Hypoglycemia
What is the result of HYPOsecretion of GH in Adults?
Tiredness, weight gain, depression
What is the result of HYPERsecretion of GH in Kids?
Gigantism with retardation
What is the result of HYPERsecretion of GH in Adults?
Acromegaly (bone and tissue overgrowth); usually a tumor
Which hormone initiates and maintains postpartum lactation?
Prolactin
The following symptoms are associated with which condition?
Amenorrhea
Erectile Dysfunction
Infertility
Headache
Prolactinemia
A deficiency in Prolactin will result in what?
Lack of postpartum lactation
You use dilutional prolactin to avoid what?
Prozone
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone tells the thyroid gland to secrete what?
T3
T4
In men, what does Follicle-Stimulating Hormone stimulate?
Spermatogenesis
In women, what does Follicle-Stimulating Hormone stimulate?
Estrogen synthesis
What does the Adrenocorticotropin Hormone stimulate the adrenal cortex to produce?
Glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol
Differentiate a tropic from an effector hormone.
*Tropic hormones cause their target gland to secrete another hormone.
* Effector hormones have a direct effect on their targets with no subsequent hormone secreted
Describe the mechanism of action of both steroid and protein classes of hormones.
*Steroid hormones cause production of mRNA.
*Protein hormones either trigger cAMP production or cause an influx of calcium
Describe a simple negative feedback loop of hormone regulation.
The fall of one substance causes a rise in another
Define panhypopituitarism
All hormones produced by the pituitary are decreased
Name the two hormones produced by the hypothalamus, but stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary.
ADH (vasopressin)
Oxytocin
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Targets distal tubules and collecting ducts
Vasopressin
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Targets bones, cartilage, adipose tissue
GH
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Stimulates uterine contractions
Oxytocin
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Turns on the thyroid gland
TSH
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Triggers production of estrogen and testosterone
FSH/LH
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Aids in postpartum milk production
Prolactin
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Stimulates the production of cortisol
ACTH
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Causes water retention
Vasopressin
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Targets the ovaries and testes
FSH/LH
Match each of the hormones listed with its target organ and/or function:
Targets the adrenal cortex.
ACTH
What disease is associated with a deficiency of ADH, polyuria and dehydration?
Diabetes insipidus
What condition is associated with overproduction of ACTH and stimulation of the adrenal cortex?
Cushing’s
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