Exam 4: Chapter 8

What are galvanic cells?
a type of electrochemical cell that converts the energy released in a spontaneous chemical reaction into electrical energy

What is oxidation?

What is reduction

Oxidation- losing electrons

Reduction- gaining electrons

What is half-reaction?
a type of chemical equation that shows the electrons either lost of gained by the reactants.
What is electricity?
the flow of electrons from one region to another that is driven by a difference in potential energy.
What are electrodes?
In an electrochemical cell, the electrical conductors (anode and cathode) that serve as sites for chemical reactions
Whats an anode? A cathode?

an anode is the electrode at which oxidation takes place

A cathode is the electrode at which reduction takes place

What is voltage?
the difference in electrochemical potential between the two electrodes
Be able to identify a reaction as either oxidation or reduction
The greater the difference in Potential, the greater the ______.
current- the rate of electron flow.
The voltage of a battery is generally determined by its _______________.
Chemical composition
What are the 7 types of batteries?

1. Alkaline

2. Lithium-iodine

3. Lithium-ion

4. lead-acid

5. nickel-cadmium

6. nickel-metal hydride

7. mercury

What does a car battery look like?
What is a hybrid vehicle?
A vehicle that runs on both gas and electricity
What was the first hybrid vehicle?
1999 Honda Insight
What is a Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle?
A vehicle made for short commutes. Runs on rechargable batteries, but can switch to a combustion engine for longer distances
What is a fuel cell?
a galvanic cell that produces electricity by converting the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity without burning the fuel.
What is distributed generation?
generating electricity on-site where it is used, thus avoiding loss of energy caused by electricity traveling far distances
Pgs. 346-347
What is electrolosis?
the process of passing a direct current of electricity of sufficient voltage to cause a chemical reaction to occur.
what are electrolytic cells?
a type of electrochemical cell in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy
Know photoelectric cells use sunlight
What are semi-conductors?
a material that does not normally conduct electricity well, but can do so under certain conditions, such as exposure to sunlight.

What are N-type semiconductors?

P-type semiconductors?

N-type semiconductors- a semiconductor in which there are freely moving negative charges (electrons).

P-type semiconductors- a semiconductor in which there are freely moving positive charges, or holes.

What is doping?
the process of internationally adding small amounts of other elements to pure silicon to modify its semiconductor properties.
Who uses the most photoelectric cells in the world?
Spain does
places we get electricity in renewable resources