Exam 4 Chemistry Review/Study Questions Part 2

Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Sweat chloride by pilocarpine
iontophoresis
>60 mmol/L
(2-5X ULN)diagnostic
Cystic Fibrosis
Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Stool wet prep with Sudan III, IV or Oil Red O (qualitative)
Fecal fat with 3 day collection based on standardized diet (quantitative)
Fat Malabsorption
Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Amylase and lipase Increased
Triglycerides Increased
Serum proteins Decreased
Fecal fats
Pancreatitis
Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Highly Increased Fasting Gastin Levels
High HCl
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Schilling Test (radioactive vit B12 assesses absorption); given with or without IF
Measure r-B12 in urine
Pernicious Anemia
Name the disease associated with the following lab tests:
Occult Blood screen, X 3
(Blood reacts with peroxidase reagent
-gum guiac. Dietary restrictions)
CEA
GI Carcinoma
What is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in U.S.A.?
Pancreatic Carcinoma
What is the cause of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome?
Gastrin-secreting tumors of the pancreas (gastrinomas)
What is the cause of Pernicious Anemia?
Insufficient intrinsic factor to absorb vit B12
Mainly due to anti-parietal antibodies (autoimmune)
What is the most common disturbance of CHO digestion?
Lactose Intolerance
Water is up to what percent of total body weight?
75%
What percent of plasma is water?
90%
What 2 mechanisms control the transport of ions across a membrane?
*Active transport involving ATP
*Diffusion, depending on size and charge of the ion, hormones
When Na+ is reabsorbed, what follows to maintain electrical neutrality?
Cl=
As Na+ is absorbed, ____ & ____ are excreted to maintain cation balance.
K+ & H+
Calcium is reabsorbed under the influence of ________
PTH
Most Na+ is reabsorbed where?
In the Proximal Tubules
More Na+ can be reabsorbed in the distal tubules under the influence of ________
Aldosterone
The final adjustment to water is made where?
Distal Tubules / Collecting Ducts
The final adjustment to water is made under the influence of what?
AVP (ADH)
What is the Major Contributor to Osmolality?
Na+
Other than Na+, what else contributes to Osmolality?
Cl, Glucose, BUN, Proteins, Lipids
What are considered “Abnormal” contributors to Osmolality?
alcohols, ketones, lactic acid, Increased glucose, Increased protein
Where is most iron found in the body?
In RBCs
State the storage form of iron
Ferritin
State the carrier protein of iron
Transferrin
What type of disorder is associated with iron overload, cirrhosis, arthritis, and heart failure?
Hemochromatosis
Describe the blood smear associated with IDA
Microcytic, hypochromic
What is the most common cause of IDA?
Chronic blood loss
Calculate the % Tf Saturation. Total iron = 125. TIBC = 300
125/300 = 42%
With what condition is 42% TF Saturation consistent with?
Normal
Calculate the % Tf Saturation. Total iron = 50 TIBC = 475
50/475 = 10%
With what condition is 10% TF Saturation consistent with?
IDA or Chronic Disease
Match the results with the condition:
Iron Increased
TIBC Decreased
% Saturation Increased
Hemochromatosis
Match the results with the condition:
Iron Decreased
TIBC Increased
% Saturation Decreased
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Match the results with the condition:
Iron Decreased
TIBC Decreased
% Saturation Decreased
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Given the Primary Function Name the Trace Element:
Collagen and RBC formation
Copper
Given the Primary Function Name the Trace Element:
Wound healing, immune response, sensory
Zinc
Given the Primary Function Name the Trace Element:
Constituent of Vit B12
Cobalt
Given the Primary Function Name the Trace Element:
Aids insulin
Chromium
Given the Primary Function Name the Trace Element:
Enzyme activator, reproduction
Manganese
Given the Trace Element Name the Primary Function:
Copper
Collagen and RBC formation
Given the Trace Element Name the Primary Function:
Zinc
Wound healing, immune response, sensory
Given the Trace Element Name the Primary Function:
Cobalt
Constituent of Vit B12
Given the Trace Element Name the Primary Function:
Chromium
Aids insulin
Given the Trace Element Name the Primary Function:
Manganese
Enzyme activator, reproduction
List the Reference Range for pH
7.34-7.45
List the Reference Range for pCO2
35-45 mm Hg
List the Reference Range for HCO3
22-26 mEq/L
What is the major form of total CO2 in the blood?
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
What is the normal ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid?
20:1
What is the RBC buffering system that works with HCO3?
Chloride shift
What blood gas is the respiratory component?
pCO2
What organ regulates the respiratory component of blood gas?
Lungs
What substance makes up the metabolic component?
HCO3
What organ regulates the metabolic component of blood gas?
Kidneys
What is the lungs response to metabolic acidosis?
Hyperventilation
What is the kidneys response to metabolic alkalosis?
HCO3 is secreted
H+ is reabsorbed