Exam 4 Chemistry Review/Study Questions Part 4

What is the formula for the % Tf Saturation?
(Total Iron / TIBC ) x 100
True or False:
Ferritin levels in serum will decrease BEFORE total iron content is depressed
True
What does Total Serum Iron Measure?
Iron bound to Tf
What is Transferrin often measured by?
Nephelometry
What is Total Iron Binding Capacity a measure of?
Capacity of transferrin to bind more iron
Usually Tf is what percent saturated with iron?
20-50%
What is the formula to calculate TIBC knowing Tf?
TIBC = Tf x 1.25
True or False:
You can not calculate TIBC if Tf<70
True
True or False:
You can not calculate % Tf Saturation is TIBC<5
True
Name the condition associated with the following:
Iron – Decreased
Ferritin – Decreased
Transferrin – Increased
RBC Count – Decreased
H&H – Decreased
MCHC – Decreased
Micro/Hypo
IDA
Name the condition associated with the following:
Iron – Increased
Ferritin – Increased
Transferrin – Decreased
Hemochromatosis
Iron Overload
Name the condition associated with the following:
Iron – Decreased
Ferritin – Normal to Increased
Transferrin – Decreased
Anemia of Chronic Disease
What is the term used to describe hereditary iron overload disease?
Hemochromatosis
What can you use to treat Iron Overload?
Therapeutic phlebotomy or chelators
Which iron disorder is connected to the following:
Cancer
Hogkins
SLE
Renal failure with decreased erythropoietin
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Given the following Determine the Iron Disease State:
Total Fe – Decreased
Ferritin – Decreased
Transferrin – Increased
TIBC – Increased
% Saturation – Decreased
IDA
Given the following Determine the Iron Disease State:
Total Fe – Increased
Ferritin – Increased
Transferrin – Decreased
TIBC – Decreased
% Saturation – Increased
Hemochromatosis
Given the following Determine the Iron Disease State:
Total Fe – Decreased
Ferritin – Normal to Increased
Transferrin – Decreased
TIBC – Decreased
% Saturation – Decreased
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Match the trace element with the deficiency results:
o Hypochromic anemia
o Bone malformation
o Menke’s syndrome
o Wilson’s disease
Copper
Match the trace element with the deficiency results:
o Impaired immunity and wound healing
o Impotence
o Growth retardation
oSensory alterations
Zinc
Match the trace element with the deficiency results:
o Megaloblastic anemia
Cobalt
Match the trace element with the deficiency results:
o Reduced glucose tolerance
Chromium
Match the trace element with the deficiency results:
o Bone defects and stunted growth
o Clotting disorders
o Epilepsy
Manganese
Match the trace element with its Functions:
Erythropoiesis
Cellular respiration
Skeletal development
Nucleic acid/protein synthesis
Collagen formatio
Copper
Match the trace element with its Functions:
Enzyme structure
RNA/DNA synthesis
Sensory development
Growth
Wound healing
Immune response
Zinc
Match the trace element with its Functions:
Constituent of Vit B12
Needed for folate metabolism
Cobalt
Match the trace element with its Functions:
“Glucose Tolerance Factor”,
increases effects of insulin
Chromium
Match the trace element with its Functions:
Enzyme activator
Reproductive function
Bone and tissue formation
Manganese
What is the formula of the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation?
pH = pK’ + log (Buffer/Acid)
Define the following:
Acid
Yield hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in H2O
Primary sources in the blood:H+, H2CO3 (carbonic acid) and pCO2
Define the following:
Base
Yield hydroxyl ions (OH-)
Primary source in the blood: HCO3 (bicarbonate)
Define the following:
Buffer
A system consisting of a weak acid and
a weak base that resists pH changes
Great quantities of H+ come from where?
Cell metabolism and food digestion
Define the following:
Total CO2
The sum of the various CO2-containing substances in plasma
Acidemia/acidosis = arterial pH below
7.35
Alkalemia/alkalosis = arterial pH above
7.45
What are the various CO2-containing substances in plasma?
Dissolved CO2 gas from cellular respiration (pCO2)
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)
Total CO2 = ______ mmol/L
23-29
HCO3 = ________mmol/L
22-26
True or False:
Bicarbonate-Carbonic Acid System is the principle buffering system
True
Normally, the ratio of HCO3 to CO2 is _____
20:1
A fall in the ratio of HCO3 to CO2 results in what?
Acidosis
A rise in the ratio of HCO3 to CO2 results in what?
Alkalosis
What 2 organs will respond to restore the 20:1 HCO3 to CO2 ratio?
Lungs and/or Kidneys
True or False:
If plasma becomes acidic, HCO3 can diffuse out of the RBC to buffer the blood
True
As HCO3 diffuses out of the RBC to buffer the blood, what moves in?
Chloride
____ventilation: More CO2 is lost and blood becomes alkaline
Hyperventillation
____ventilation: CO2 accumulates and blood becomes acidic
Hypoventilation
True or False:
The response time to ventilation changes occurs within seconds
True
True or False:
Tubules will excrete or retain acid (H+) or alkaline (HCO3)
True
When H+ is retained by the kidneys, what is excreted?
Na+
When Na+ is retained by the kidneys, what is excreted?
H+
As H+ is excreted or Retained by the kidneys, what moves with it?
K+
Correction of pH may take how much time when regulated by the kidneys?
2-4 days
What is it called when:
pH has returned to normal, other 2 parameters are abnormal
Fully Compensated
What is it called when:
the pH and 1 other parameter are abnormal
Uncompensated
What is it called when:
All 3 parameters are abnormal
Partially Compensated