Exam 5 Automation & POCT

Hospital POCT requires
Instrument validation, calibration, QC, operator training and proficiency testing
Common POC Applications
Glucose, Electrolytes, Blood gases, drugs
Chol / TG, Cardiac markers (troponin), creatinine
Activated clotting time, PT, PTT
Analytical techniques for POCT
Spectrometry / Reflectance photometry
/ Paper chromatography/ ISE
Biosensors using micro silicon chips
Modular Automation
One section of a lab is automated at a time
Total Laboratory Automation (TLA)
Sample processing (pre-analytical phase), analysis (analytical phase), and report generation and sample storage (post-analytical phase)
Hospital information system (HIS)
hospital-wide system that generates patient reports and orders
Laboratory information system (LIS)
Generates test requests and results.
Generates worksheets
True or False:
Many analyzers are directly linked to the LIS
Bidirectional interface
2-way communication between the LIS & any on-line instrument
Data Handling
Computerized monitoring of QC, clot detection, temperature, reagent levels
Dry Slide
All chemicals are layered onto
a thin slide on a plastic support
How is the shelf life of Dry Slide?
Long shelf life; 6 month calibration possible
True or False:
Reagent systems Dry Slide – The only liquid used in the system is patient sample; no plumbing or drains
True or False:
Dry Reagent Systems require reconstitution
True or False:
Dry Reagent Systems – water quality is very important
How often do Liquid or Wet Reagent Systems require instrument calibration?
Daily to Monthly
What is the disadvantage of Liquid or Wet Reagent Systems?
Faster expiration dates
maximum number of tests that an instrument can perform in a given period of time
Simultaneous Multiple Analyzer
Continuous flow, multiple channels allowed 6 or 12 tests to be run on a single sample; 360 or 720 tests per hou
Automatic Clinical Analyzer (ACA)
Discrete random access analyzer
True or False:
The ACA is Able to process different tests simultaneously as they pass through the system (simultaneous multiple analysis)
Dry Slide Technology,Kodak
Use micro-volumes of sample and reagents
-Eliminated liquid waste and liquid reagent prep and storage
Continuous Flow
Samples, standards, controls, diluents and reagents travel through a system of continuous tubing
How were samples separated with continuous flow
Air bubbles
What were the past problems with continuous flow
Carryover and wasted reagent
What has helped to reduce carryover?
Teflon tubing & Teflon oil
Test Menu or Repertoire
The list of tests that can be run on an instrument
Dedicated Instrument
Designed to perform 1 or 2 tests ONLY
Glucometer is an example of what kind of instrument?
Dedicated Instrument
True or False:
Separate probes (tips) are used for each sample in Specimen measurement and delivery
How is sample evaporation reduced in automated analysis?
lid covers, sample caps that can be pierced, or cuvette sealing devices
What is the most labor-intensive phase of testing?
Specimen Processing and Identification
What is the most costly phase of testing?
Specimen Processing and Identification
Discrete Analyzers
Each sample has its own separate container, tube or cup
True or False:
Discrete Analyzers can run multiple tests on one sample
True or False:
Discrete Analyzers can run one test on multiple samples
Discrete Analyzers – Random Access Capability allows for what?
STAT out-of-sequence analysis regardless of initial sample loading order
Centrifugal Analyzers
Centrifugal force mixes and transfers samples from chamber to chamber
What are Centrifugal Analyzers used primarily for?
High Volume Batch Analysis
True or False:
Centrifugal Analyzers – All test cuvettes are read simultaneously, so cuvettes must be matched