Exam 5 End of Lecture Questions

Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin A
Night blindness
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin B1
Beriberi
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin C
Scurvy
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin D
Rickets
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin E
Hemolytic anemia
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Vitamin K
Bleeding disorders
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
Niacin
Pellagra
Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:
B12 / folate
Megaloblastic anemia
Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of what mineral?
Calcium
Which vitamin is needed for prothrombin formation?
Vitamin K
What substance is necessary for vitamin B12 absorption?
Intrinsic factor
What disease results as a deficiency of B12?
Pernicious anemia
What test can be done to detect a deficiency of B12?
Schilling test
Which vitamin is ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C
Which vitamin, when deficient, can lead to neural tube defects in a developing fetus?
Folate
What test can be done on mom’s serum to help detect this disorder?
AFP
What is the most common cause of IDA?
Chronic blood loss
What protein marker is the best indicator of short-term malnutrition?
Prealbumin
What is the relationship between absorbance and concentration?
Direct, as one increases so does the other.
The absorbance of a 50 mg/dL standard reads 0.130. The absorbance on the patient’s sample reads 0.116. What is the concentration of the patient’s sample?
44.6 mg/dL
The absorbance of a 50 mg/dL standard reads 0.130. The absorbance on the patient’s sample reads 0.116. How do you determine the concentration of the patient’s sample?
(0.116/0.130) x 50 = 44.6
What part of a spectrophotometer isolates a specific wavelength?
Monochromator
What are the following considered:
Scratches, dust, and open compartment door, cracks in the instrument housing.
Causes of stray light in a spectrophotometer
What is the purpose of using blanks?
To subtract out any absorbance caused by unusual reagent or sample color (lipemia, icteric, hemolysis)
What is the light source used in atomic absorption spectrophotometry?
Hollow cathode tube
What is the primary use of AA spectrophotometry?
To measure trace elements and metals
What are the advantages of using chemiluminescence?
Higher sensitivity, lower detections limits, fewer instrument requirements
Name 2 commonly used chemiluminescent labels
Luminal
Acridinum ester
What are the two electrodes used in an ISE system?
Reference and Indicator (sample)
List the most common uses/applications of ISE in the lab
Electrolytes, ionized Ca, pH
What is the difference between direct ISE and indirect ISE?
Direct uses undiluted sample, Indirect uses pre-diluted sample
How can high levels of protein or lipids affect sodium values when using indirect ISE?
It can cause false decreased sodium
List the most common uses of gas-sensing electrodes in the lab
pO2 and pCO2
What mode of chromatography separation is commonly used to make deionized water?
Ion exchange
What is the mobile phase in thin-layer chromatography (TLC)?
Liquid Solvent
What is the stationary phase in thin-layer chromatography (TLC)?
Silica gel on a rigid plate
What are the most common uses of TLC in the lab?
Drug screens (L/S ratios – outdated)
What is retention factor used in?
TLC
how is retention factor useful?
Compares distance an unknown moves to the distance of the solvent front
What term (in HPLC) describes the time required for a compound to elute?
Retention time
What is the name of the graph that shows each eluted compound?
Chromatogram
What is the most common use of HPLC?
Drugs screens and drug ID
What is the mobile phase in gas chromatography?
Inert gas
What type of compounds can be analyzed by gas chromatography?
Any compound that can be converted to a volatile (gaseous) state
What is the most common use of gas chromatography?
Drug ID
What is the principle of GC/Mass spec?
Eluted compounds are bombarded by electrons to break them into ions and ion fragments, then a mass charge ration is determined.
What methodology is the most specific for drug confirmation?
GC mass spec
Define the following:
Mode
Most common value in a set
Define the following:
Mean
The average value in a set
Define the following:
Control
Substance treated exactly as a patient sample; detects analytic errors
Define the following:
2SD
95% confidence limits
Define the following:
Delta check
Comparison of a patient result with a previous result
Define the following:
Diagnostic sensitivity
Proportion of persons with a disease who test positive
Define the following:
Diagnostic specificity
Proportion of persons without disease who test neg.
Define the following:
Analytical sensitivity
Represents the smallest concentration that a test can measure
The mean for a particular analyte is 100 mg/dl. 1 SD is 5. What are the confidence limits for this analyte?
90-110
The mean for a particular analyte is 100 mg/dl. 1 SD is 5. How would you determine the confidence limits for this analyte?
2SD = 10
100 + 10 = 110
100 – 10 = 90
Ideally, how many samples should be tested when establishing a new reference range?
120+
How many samples should be tested when verifying a reference range?
20+
What are the following characteristic of:
Temperature fluctuations, tech error, bubble, scratch
Possible causes of random error
What are the following characteristic of:
Bad reagents, failing instruments, poor calibration
Possible causes of systematic error
Name a common reason for calculating a CV
To compare two methods for the same substance that have different reporting units;
To compare performance of two techs
The mean for a certain analyte is 210. 1 SD is 10. What is the CV?
4.8%
The mean for a certain analyte is 210. 1 SD is 10. How would you determine what the CV is?
CV = (1SD/mean) x 100
10/210 x 100
What is the primary purpose of performing linear regression analysis?
To compare a current, older method or machine with a new incoming method/machine
John Doe’s 6:00 am potassium was 3.1 mEq/L. Another sample was collected and tested at 9:00 am with a result of 7.5 mEq/L. This prompted a QC “flag” which is often referred to as a _____ ______
Delta Check
What is the possible repercussion if a lab fails to pass, and then fails to verify an incorrect result on a proficiency sample?
The department may not be allowed to perform/report that test until remediation and better results are obtained.
What Westgard rule is in violation when 1 control is OK, but the second control is outside the 3 SD range?
1-3S
What type of error does this Westgard “rule” best identify?
Random errors
Although control values have been in range, the tech observes that 7 consecutive control data points have fallen below the mean. What do we call this phenomenon?
Shift
A Precision Study is going to be run on a new test method. How many controls should be run?
2 controls
A Precision Study is going to be run on a new test method. How frequently should they be run?
Twice a day for 10 days
What is the name of the process designed to reduce time and errors in an effort to achieve excellence in performance?
Lean Six Sigma
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