Exam III

acids
__ produce H+ ions in solutions
bases
__ produce OH- ions in solutions
acids (called amino acids)
the building blocks of proteins are __
bases
the molecules that carry the genetic code in DNA are __
sour taste,
the ability to dissolve many metals,
the ability to turn blue litmus paper red,
the ability to neutralize bases
what are the general properties of acids?
hydrochloric acid
you can find __ in most chemistry laboratories, it is used to clean metals, to prepare and process some foods, and to refine metal ores. it is also the main component of stomach acid
HCl
acid
hydrochloric acid =
H2SO4
acid
sulfuric acid =
HNO3
acid
nitric acid =
HC2H3O2
OR
CH3COOH
acid
Acetic acid =
H3C6H5O7
acid
Citric acid =
H2CO3
acid
Carbonic acid =
HF
acid
Hydrofluoric acid =
H3PO4
acid
Phosphoric acid =
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
__ = metal cleaning, food preparation; ore refining; primary component of stomach acid
sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
__ = fertilizer and explosives manufacturing; dye and glue production; automobile batteries; electroplating of copper
nitric acid (HNO3)
__ = fertilizer and explosives manufacturing; dye and glue production
acetic acid (HC2H3O2 OR CH3COOH)
__ = plastic and rubber manufacturing; food preservative; active component of vinegar
citric acid (H3C6H5O7)
__ = present in citrus fruits such as lemons and limes; used to adjust pH in foods and beverages
carbonic acid (H2CO3)
__ = found in carbonated beverages due to the reaction of carbon dioxide with water
hydrofluoric acid (HF)
__ = metal cleaning; glass frosting and etching
phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
__ = fertilizer manufacture; biological buffering; preservative in beverages
sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
__ is produced in larger quantities than any other chemical
acetic acid (HC2H3O2)
__ is produced in improperly stored wines
carboxylic acid
acetic acid is a __
carboxylic acid
__ is an acid that contains H single bonded to O, which is single bonded to C, which is double bonded to O, and single bonded to something else (H-O-C=O, H-O-C-?)
living organisms
carboxylic acids are often found in substances derived from __
carboxylic
citric acid and malic acid are examples of __ acids
H2C4H4O5
malic acid =
malic acid
__ is found in apples, grapes, and wine
a bitter taste,
a slippery feel,
the ability to turn red litmus paper blue,
the ability to neutralize acids
what are the general properties of bases
NaOH
base
Sodium hydroxide =
KOH
base
potassium hydroxide =
NaHCO3
base
Sodium bicarbonate =
Na2CO3
base
sodium carbonate =
NH3
base
ammonia =
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
base
__ = petroleum processing; soap and plastic manufacturing
potassium hydroxide(KOH)
base
__ = cotton processing; electroplating; soap production; batteries
sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
base
__ = antacid; ingredient of baking soda; source of CO2
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
base
__ = manufacture of glass and soap; general cleanser; water softener
ammonia (NH3)
base
__ = detergent; fertilizer and explosives manufacturing; synthetic fiber production
less
this is because of their bitterness
bases are __ common in foods than are acids
alkaloids
our aversion to the taste of bases is probably an evolutionary adaptation to warn us against __
alkaloids
__ = organic bases found in plants that are often poisonous
base
(*coffee is acidic overall, but bases present in coffee – such as caffeine – impart a bitter flavor)
some foods, such as coffee and chocolate contain small amounts of __
oils on the skin
soap-like substances
bases feel slippery because they react with __ to form __
litmus paper
in the lab __ is routinely used to test the basicity of solutions
arrhenius definition for an acid
a substance that produces H+ ions in aqueous solutions
arrhenius definition of a base
a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
highly
H+ ions are __ reactive
water molecule
in aqueous solution, an H+ ion binds to a __
hydronium ion
the H3O+ ion is called the __
hydronium ions (H3O+)
H(H2O)_n^+
in water H+ ions always associate with H20 to form __ and other associated species with the general formula __
dissociates
__ = breaks apart into its component ions
water, neutralizing each other in the process
under the arrhenius definition, acids and bases naturally combine to form __
bronsted-lowry definition
focuses on the transfer of H+ ions in an acid-base reaction. it focuses on the idea of a proton donor and a proton acceptor
bronsted-lowry definition of an acid
proton (H+ ion) donor
bronsted-lowry definition of a base
proton (H+ ion) acceptor
H3O+ (a hydronium ion)
the bronsted-lowry definition clearly describes what happens to the H+ ion from an acid – it associates with a water molecule to form __
produce OH- ions
the bronsted-lowry definition also works well with bases (such as NH3) that do not inherently contain OH- ions but still __ in solution
together
in the bronsted-lowry definitions, acids (proton donors) and bases (proton accpetors) always occur __
acids
bases
according to the bronsted-lowry definition, some substances can act as __ or __
amphoteric
substances that can act as acids or bases are __
conjugate acid-base pair
NH4+ and NH3 are often reffered to as a __
conjugate acid-base pair
two substances related to each other by the transfer of a proton
conjugate acid
any base to which a proton has been added
conjugate base
any acid from which a proton has been removed
accepts
a base __ a proton and becomes a conjugate acid
donates
an acid __ a proton and becomes a conjugate base
electrolyte
the strength of an __ is determined by the extent of its dissociation into its component ions in solution
strong electrolyte
a __ completely dissociates into ions in solution
weak electrolyte
a __ only partially dissociates into ions in solution
strong acid
a __ completely ionizes in solutions
weak acid
a __ only partially ionizes in solution
equilibrium
the strength of an acid depends on the __
strong – it completely ionizes
if the equilibrium lies far to the right, the acid is __
weak – only a small percentage of the acid molecules ionize
if the equilibrium lies to the left, the acid is __
continuous
the range of acid strength is __
pg 665