Exam Prep

What is the symbol for compressed gas?


A circle with a tude like item inside.

What is the symbol for flammable or combustible material?


A circle witha flame inside.

What is the symbol for oxidizing material?


A circle with a flame around a circle inside.

What is the symbol for poisonous (infectious) material causing immediate and serious toxic effects?


A circle with a skull and cross bones inside.

What is the symbol for poisonous (infectious) materials that cause others toxic effects?


A circle with a T-like exclamation mark inside.

What is the symbol for biohazardous material?


A circle with a 3 figured symbol.

What is the symbol for corrosive material?


A circle with a test tude spilling on a item and a hand, burning them

What is the symbol for dangerous reative material?


A circle with a shinning R inside.

What are the risks for compressed gas?


Contents are under high pressure
Could explode if heated or dropped

What are the risks for flammable materials?


Catches fire easily

May ignite without warning

What are the risks for oxidizing material?


Maybe cause combustible material to explode

Increases fire hazards

What are the risks for poisonous materials causing immediate toxic effects?


May be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through skin

What are the ricks of poisonous material causing others toxic effects?


May cause death, permanent injury, or cancer

What are the risks of biohazardous material?


Contains livng organisms that can cause harm (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.)

What are the symbols for corrosive materials?


Causes eye and skin irritation on contact

Severe burns after long period of contact

What are the risks of reactive materials?


May react violently with water

May explode if exposed to heat or shock

What are the precautions of compressed gas?


Keep away from heat

Store it safely (not on a high shelf where it could fall)

What are the precautions of flammable material?


Keep away from anything can catch fire

Store in a safe place, away from flame sources


What are the precautions of oxidizing materials?


Keep away from combustible materials


What are the precautions of poisonous materials causing immediate toxic effects?


Don’t taste or smell it

Don’t get it on you

What are the precautions of posionous material that causes others toxic effects?


Keep in a special place

Use only if extremely necessary

Take every precaution

What are the precautions of biohazardous materials?


Don’t let loose

Keep it contained

Keep in protected areas

What are the precautions of corrosive materials?


Wear all safety material (goggles, gloves, suit)

Wash immediatly if you get in on you

What are the precautions of dangerously reactive materials?


Keep away from water and heat

Dont drop it

What is the symbol for explosive material?

(hazardous household products)


What is the symbol for corrosive?

(hazardous household products)


What is the symbol for flammable material?

(hazardous household products)


What is the symbol for poison?

(hazardous household products)


What is the danger of explosive material?

(hazardous household products)


Can explode if heated or punctured

Flying pieces of metal or plastic can cause serious injuries

What is the danger of corrosive materials?

(hazardous household products)


Can burn skin or eyes on contact or throat and stomach if swallowed

What is the danger of flammable materials?

(hazardous household products)


The product and its fumes can catch fire easily if its near heat, flames or sparks

What is the danger of poisonous materials?

(hazardous household products)


Licking, eating, drinking, or sometimes even smelling this product can cause illness or death

What is the precaution for explosive materials?

(hazardous household products)


Keep away from heat

Dont drop

What are the precautions of corrosive materials?

(hazardous household products)


Don’t touch directly with skin

Wear gloves

Don’t smell or taste that chemical

What are the precautions of flammable material?

(hazardous household products)


Keep away from fire, lighters, matches or anything that can start a fire

What are the precautions of poisonous material?

(hazardous household products)


Don’t drink, taste, eat or anything of that sort
What symbol means the container is dangerous?
What symbol means the contents inside the container are dangerous?
What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the study fo the properties of matter as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions
What is matter?

Matter is anything that has mass and volume (has weight and takes up space)


All matter has physical and chemical properties

Which one is a graduated cylinder?





Which one is the Beaker Tongs?


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Which one is the Pestle Mortar?


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Which one is the Erlenmeyer Flask?

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Which one is the stirring rod?

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Which one is the scoopula?

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Which one is the test tube?

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Which one is the rubber stopper?


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Which one is the striker?

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How is the graduated cylinder used?


Accurately measures the volume of liquids in mL

How are the Beaker tongs used?


“Lobster-claw” end used to hold and move hot beakers

How is the Pestle Mortar used?


Crushes, grinds, and mixes

How is the erlenmeyer flask used?


Has a wide stable base; used to hold and mix chemicals

How is a stirring rod used?


Used for stirring

How is a scoopula used?


Scoopes and transfers chemicals

How is a test tube used?


Small glass container used to hold chemicals

How is a rubber stopper used?


Seals the openings of glass containers

How is a striker used?


Produces a spark when flint is rubbed aganist rough steel
What is combustion?
When a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen and releases energy
What are the 3 parts of the fire triangle?


oxygen, fuel, heat

How are fossil fuels formed?

They are formed from decomposing plants, animals and microorganisms that lived many years ago.

The energy in their cells still remains ‘locked up’; fossil fuels

Why are fossil fuels so important?

Because human technology depends on them.

They power homes, industries, and various means of transportation.

What are hydrocarbons?
They are particles made when fossil fuels are burned; releasing carbon dioxide which reacts with water vapor, making hydrocarbons
Define a reactant
Reactants are what things that are put together; react with one another
Define a product
Products are the resulting substancs from a reactant.
What are the reactants and products for the combustion of fossil fuels?

The reactants are carbon dioxide and water vapor.

The products are hydrocarbons.

What is the word equation for the combuston of a hydrocarbon?
hydrocarbon + oxygen -> cabon dioxide + water
There are two other products that may be produced from combustion when conditions are not ideal. What are these two products?
The two products that may be produced from combustion when conditions are not ideal are carbon monoxide and carbon.
Why are extra products formed?
Because there isn’t enough heat or oxygen
What is the greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect is when heat is trapped into a space, the sun can come through but heat cant get out.

Carbon dioxide gas produced by

combustion in industry and automobile engines increase the greenhouse effect.

Define a chemical symbol

A chemical symbol is an abbreviation od the name of an element.

The abbreviation however, may not be of the English language.

What is the symbol for hydrogen?
What is the symbol for helium?
What is the symbol for lithium?
What is the symbol for berylium?
What is the symbol for boron?
What is the symbol for carbon?
What is the symbol for nitrogen?
What is the symbol for oxygen?
What is the symbol for fluorine?
What is the symbol for neon?
What is the symbol for sodium?
What is the symbol for magnesium?
What is the symbol for aluminum?
What is the symbol for silicon?
What is the symbol for phosphorus?
What is the symbol for sulfur?
What is the symbol for chlorine?
What is the symbol for argon?
What is the symbol for potassium?
What is the symbol for calcuim?

Matter is anything that has:


-mass and energy

– volume and energy

– mass and volume

– energy

mass and volume

Aluminum can be bent into various shapes. This statement describes which property?


– density

– ductility

– malleability

– viscosity


Which of the following properties of magnesium is a physical property?


– magnesium burns in air with a brilliant white flame

– magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce gas

– magnesium is shiny

– magnesium combines with nitrogen to form a black powder

magnesium is shiny

Which of the following properties is a chemical property?


– hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen

– mercury is liquid at room temperature

– tin is malleable

– the density of gold is 19.3g/cm3

Hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen

Which of the following clues is NOT a clue of a chemical change?


– change of state

– change of color

– bubbes form

– precipitate forms

change of state

What kind of change is this (physical or chemical) and what is the evidence?


Burning Coal

Chemical Change


heat or light given off

What kind of change is this (physical or chemical) and what is the evidence?


Rolling up the rim on a coffee cup

Physical Change


Change of form

What kind of change is this (physical or chemical) and what is the evidence?


Baking Bread

Chemical Change


Change of color

What kind of change is this (physical or chemical) and what is the evidence?


Water vapor in the air turns to frost

Physical Change


Change of state

What kind of change is this (physical or chemical) and what is the evidence?


Chocolate is melted

Physical Change


Change of state

Whats the analogy of John Dalton’s theory?
Billard Balls
What is the analogy for J.J. Thomson’s theory?
Chocolate Chip Muffin
What is the analogy for Ernest Rutherford’s theory?
Beehive Model
What is the analogy for Neils Bohr’s theory?
Planetary Model
Matter is made of indivisible atoms — is a part of who’s theory?
John Dalton
Atom is a positive sphere with embedded negative electrons — is a part of who’s theory?
J.J. Thomson
Atom has a small positive nucleus (with positive protons), which is surrounded by mostly empty space and rapidly moving electrons — is a part of who’s theory?
Ernest Rutherford
Electrons move around nucleus in orbits — is a part of who’s theory?
Niels Bohr
Each element has it’s own kind of atom with its own particular mass — is a part of who’s theory?
John Dalton
When an atom loses or gains electrons, it becomes charged and is called a ___
When an atom loses electrons -> ion has a ________ charge
When an atom gains electrons -> ion has a _______ charge
Define a model
A representation of something

In models of molecules:


– atoms are held together by connections called _______

– atoms are represented by ______ _______

– bonds

– colored spheres


Molecules can also be represented by drawings called _________


– each atom is represented by its _______

– each bond is represented by a ________ ____

– structural diagrams

– symbol

– straight line

Define a physical property

A physical property is a characteristic or description of a substance that may help to identify it.


A physical property does not involve a substance becoming a new substance

What are the five physical properties?

– color

– texture

– odour

– lustre

– clarity

– taste

Define malleablity

Malleability is the ability for material to be hammered into thin sheets or bent into different shapes


Example: aluminum foli

Define ductility

Ductility is the ability for a material to be drawn out into a long, thin wires.


Example: copper

Define solubility

Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent such as water


Example: salt

Ice melts at __ degrees celcius
Water boils and turns from a liquid to a vapor at __ degrees celcius
Define alloy
Many mixtures of metal
If two substances are mixed, the own with the _____ density will stay on top or float
Examples of change of state:

– melting (solid -> liquid)

–  evaporation (liquid -> gas)

– boiling (liquid -> gas)

– freezing (lquid -> sold)

– condensation (gas -> liquid)

– sublimation (gas -> sold/solid -> gas)

Examples of change in form:

– blowing up a ballon

– cutting an apple

Examples of dissolving:
– when sugar dissolves in water, the sugar particles are still there
Physical Changes

– substance changes without becoming anything new

– often easy to reverse

Chemical Changes:

– always causes at least one new substance with new properties to be formed

– difficult to reverse

Examples of chemical changes:

– burning paper

– rusting on nails

Define ecology
Ecology is the study of the interaction of living things with each other and with the ABIOTIC factors in their enviroment
_____ factors refer to the non-living parts of an ecosystem
Non-living things
Living things
______ factors refer to the living parts of an ecosystem as well as the interactions among the living things

Temperature is an example of:


biotic or abiotic?


Sunlight is an example of:


biotic or abiotic?

Biotic organisms have two categories:
producers and organisms
Examples of biotic producers:

– plants

– algae

Examples of biotic comsumers:

– carnivore

– harbivore

– scavenger

– decomposer

Define sustainability
Sustainibility is an enviroment means that populations of plants, animals, and other living organisms can continue to interact and to reproduce indefinitly
Levels of Ecological Organizations:

– Biosphere

– Biome

– Ecosystem

– Community

– Population

– Individual

Define Biosphere
the surface of the planet where living things exist
Biosphere is made of 3 parts:

– atmosphere: layer of gases surrounding the earth

– lithosphere: earths solid outer layer

– hydrosphere: all water on earth

Define Biome
A large geographic area that contains similar ecosystems due to a distinct climate and similar biotic and abiotic factors
Define Ecosystem

interaction of the community with local abiotic factors:

– temperature

– sunlight

– wind

– oxygen

Define community

populations of different species that live and interact in a certain area


Example: rock bass, seaweed, frogs, trout, and turtles

Define population

a group of organisms from all the same species that live within a certain area


species: a group of organisms that can mate with eachother and produce fertile offspring

Define individual

A unique organism


Example: one rock bass

What provides the energy to all food webs?
Why are producers so important?
Because they produce food for everything else
Define a food web
A diagram that shows the interlocking food chains in an ecosystem
Define a producer

An organism that makes its own food by the process of photosynthesis


Example: plants

Define a consumer:

An organism that eats other organisms in a food chain. They can’t make their own food.


Example: Snake, fox

Define a primary consumer:
a organism that eats only producers
Define a secondary consumer:
a organism that eats a primary consumer
Define a herbivore:

An animal that feeds on plants

Herbivores are primary consumers

Define a carnivore:

An animal that fees on another


Example: Owl -> top carnivore else preys on it

Define an omnivore:

An organism that feeds on both animals and plants


Example: mice

Define a scavenger:
a carnivore that needs on the remains of dead animals
Define decomposers or detritivores:

on organism, often a bacteruim or fungus, that feeds on an breaks down dead plant or animal matter. They get nutrients for their own use, but they also recieve nutrients back into soil and water (recyclers)


detritus is waste from plants and animals including their dead remains

Define bioaccumulation
when an indiviual continues to eat food contaminated with the toxin, it will accumulate in the body
Define biomagnification
the toxin becomes more and more concentrated in each link in the food chain as an animal eats many contaminated animals
algae absorbs tiny amounts of mercury from the water, overtime mercury builds up in their tissues — is an example of what?
Predatory fish, like salmon or trout, eat other fish with a toxin and it gets more and more concentrated in the salmon or trout — this is an example of ________
Carbon can be found in the atmosphere and dissolved in the oceans as part of the ______ ________ molecule
Carbon dioxide
Plants use energy from the ___ to combine ________ ________ and _____ to produce ______ (a type of sugar)


carbon dioxide



PLants use a green pigment called _________ to carry out photosynthesis
Equation for photosynthesis:
carbon dioxide + light energy + water -> glucose + oxygen
Plants and animals require energy to perform functions such as ______ ____ __ ____ ______ and ____________


repair of damage tissue


Equation for cellular respiration:
glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water +energy
Because carbon is cycled through both processes, the relationship is often called _____ ______
Carbon Cycle
4 main reservoirs for carbon:

– in the atmosphere

– in bodies of living things

– in the earth’s crust

– oceans

Three ways that carbon dioxide is released into the air:


– burning fossi fuels

– volcanoes

– cellular respiration

Carbon dioxide is taken out of the atomosphere by:


– photosynthesis

– dissolving in oceans

– forming carbonate

_______ are the type of organisms that are capable of doing photosynthesis
The biomes of canada are:

– tundra

– boreal forest (tagia)

– temperate deciduous

– grassland

Where is the tundra biome located in Canada?
Northern Canada
Where is the Boreal Forest (Taiga) located in Canada?
Just below the Tundra Biome
Where is the Temperate Deciduous biome located in Canada?
Southern Ontario
Where is the Grassland biome located in Canada?
The prarie of North America
Define carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support
Define extirpated
A species that no longer exists in Canada, but still occurs elsewhere
Define endangered
A species that faces extinction or extirpation
Define threatened
A species that may become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed
Define speical concern
A species that has characteristics that make it sensitive to human activities or natural events
Define extinct
a species that no longer exists
Define predation
occurs when one organism eats another organism to obtain food



is the organism that is eaten

is the organism that eats

Define symbiosis:
A close interaction between two different species in which members of one species lives in, on, or near members of the other species
3 types of symbiotic relationship:

– mutualism

– commerisalism

– parasitism

Define mutualism:
occurs when both species benefit from the relationship
Define commerisalism:
occurs when one species benefits from the relationship while the other species neither benefits nor is harmed
Define parasitism:
one species benefits and the other is harmed
Define competition:
is the interaction between two or more organisms competing for the same resources in a given habitat
Define denitrification
denitrification is the proces which converts nitrates back to atmospheric nitrogen gas. This process  is done by denitrifying bacteria.
Define nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen fixation is the process which converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates.
Nitrogen fixation can happen in 2 ways:

– lightning

– bacteria

Lightning (nitrogen fixation)

lightning accounts for only about 1% of the world’s nitrogen fixation (it only fixes a small amount of nitrogen into nitrates)


Energy from lightning causes nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere to react, producing nitrates

Bacteria (nitrogen fixation)

nitrogen-fixation are capable of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia


Ammonia is not useful to most plants. Bacteria called nitrifying bacteria converts this ammonia into nitrites, and then into nitrates (which plants can use!)

What is another name for rust?
iron oxide
What two reactants are needed for corrosion to occur?

– iron

– oxygen

Which metal forms rust when it corrodes?
What are two ways you could protect a metal from corrosion?

– paint the item

– coating with other metals

What are the three parts of the fire triangle?
oxygen, heat, fuel
When a hydrocarbon (fossil fuel) burns, what products are always produced?
carbon dioxide & water vapor
What are two products that sometimes can be produced during combustion?
Carbon monoxide & carbon
What are the five points of the particle theory?

1. all matter is made up of extremely tiny particles

2. each pure substance has its own kind of particle, different from the particles of other pure substances

3. particles attract eachother

4. particles are in constant movement

5. particles at a higher temperature are moving faster than particles at a lower temperature

When a substance is heated, what happens to the speed of the particles according to the particle theory?
they move faster; more energy
When a gas condenses to a liquid, what happens to the attractive forces between particles?
gets stronger
When a liquid evaporates, what happens to the space between particles?
gets larger
Define an insulator

Materials that don’t allow electrons to move freely from atom to atom


Example: plastic

Define a conductor

Materials that allow charges to move freely.


When a conductor is charged, the charge spreads out evenly throughout the conductor

When a object becomes discharged, it loses its excess charges and becomes _____
Grounding can be used to remove excess electrons from a negative object (electrons move from ________ _____ into _________), or add electrons to a positive object (electrons move from ________ into ________ _______)

– charged objects

– the ground

– the ground

– charged objects

How do the clouds become charged?
Negative water droplets gather at bottom cloud
What are the benefits of lightning?

1. Produces nitrates which help plants grow

2. Produces ozone (ozone layer)

Solubility describes the ability of a substance to ______ in a solvent
If a substance burns when its exposed to a flame, it is said to be _________
Copper does not change into something new when it conduct electricity; this means that the ability to conduct electricity is a _______ property of copper
The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid is called the ____________
Melting point
4 ways to produce static electic charge:

– charging by friction

– charging by contact

– induced charge seperation

– charging by induction


Charging by friction produces _______ (same/opposite) charges
Charging by contact produces ________ (same/opposite) charges
Charging by induction produces _____ (same/opposite) charges
To charge an object by contact you ______
Touch charged and neutral objects
To charge an object by induction you _________
bring charged object near the neutral object
To charge by friction you ____________
Rub them together

Electrons will not travel freely through which of the following?

 a) copper

b) salt water

c) silver

d) wood

d) wood

When a negative ion is formed, an atom must

a) lose an electron

b) lose a proton

c) gain an electron

d) gain a proton

c) gain an electron

When an object is charged by contact which subatomic particles move?

a) electrons

b) neutrons

c) protons

d) electrons or protons, depending on the charge

a) electrons
What is the function of the source in a simple circuit?
Converts chemical energy into electrical energy
Electric current is the _____ of electric charges that ____ a given point in a circuit every second

– number

– pass

Voltage is the amount of _____________ an electron gains or loses between two points in a circut
electric energy
A voltmeter is connected across a source or load to measure the energy _____ or _____

– gained

– lost

Periodic Table regions:

– Aikali metals

– metals

– metaloids

– noble gases

– halogens

– non-metals

To measure large distances in the solar system, astronomers sometimes use a distance measurement called the ___________________
Astronomical unit (a.u)
An astronomical unit (a.u.) is equal to the distance between ____ and ____

– earth

– sun

Define a star
a large ball of hot gas that emits huge amounts of enegry
Define a light year
the distance that light travels in one year
a relatively cool star glows ___
a very hot star glows _____
blueish – white or even blue
A small star is called a _____
A large star is called a ______
Super giant

Apparent magnitude refers to the _________________________________


brightness of the star as it appears to us from the earth

Absolute magnitude refers to



the actual amount of light given off by a star at a standard distance
Planets revolve around the sun in paths called _____