Exam Review

Chemistry
The organized investigation of the changes in and the properties of matter.
Give the following information for the measurement quantities studied in this section: quantity, base unit, symbol or abbreviation, instrument or equipment.
Mass: gram, g, balance.
Volume: liter, L, graduated cylinder.
Length: meter, m, metric ruler.
Time: second, s, watch or clock.
State the correct method for reading a graduated cylinder. State the unit of measure and the equipment used to measure volume.
The reading should be taken at the bottom of the meniscus when it is at eye level. The unit of measurement is a liter and the equipment used is a graduated cylinder.
State the rules for using the balance. Include the process for zeroing the balance. State the unit of measure and the quantity measured.
Always use the same balance throughout an experiment. Record the balance number in your data table. Zero the balance. Never mass a chemical directly on the balance pan. When leaving, put the center rider on 100 and the others on zero.
Zeroing the Scale- Dust the balance pan. Make sure all riders are on zero. Allow pointer at the end of the balance to come to a rest point, which should be the center of the scale. If this point is not in the center, adjust the balance by using the zeroing knob near the balance pan. If the pointer is below center, turn the knob counter-clockwise, if it is above center, turn the knob clockwise.
Temperature
The measure of the average molecular motion of a substance.
Endothermic
Absorbed energy
Exothermic
Released engergy
Specific Heat Capacity
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance 1 degree Celcius.
Sublimation
The point at which a solid becomes a gas without passing through the liquid state.
Deposition
The point at which a gas becomes a solid without passing through the liquid state.
Kinetic Theory
states that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. The atoms are in constant motion and when the atoms collide, the collisions are perfectly elastic.
What determines the phase of a substance?
The way atoms are packed and their speed of motion.
List the physical states of matter giving the characteristic properties of each.
Solid- tightly packed, very little particle movement, definate shape, definate volume.
Liquid- moderate packing, moderate movement, indefinate shape, definate volume.
Gas- loosely packed molecules, free and random movement, indefinate shape, indefinate volume.
Equal masses of two substances absorb the same amount of heat. The temperature of substance A increases twice as much as the temperature of substance B. Which substance has the higher specific heat?
Substance B has a higher specific heat because it took more energy to raise its temperature.
Absolute Zero
The point at which all molecular motion would cease.
STP
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Standard Temperature
Zero degrees celcius
What causes pressure?
The force of collision and the number of collisions with the walls of the container and with the molecules themselves that cause gas pressure.
What are the equvalents of standard pressure?
1 atm, 760 mm Hg, 760 torr, and 101.325 kPa
What is the relationship for temperature and kinetic energy for gasses?
As temperature rises, the movement of the perticles rises, increasing the amount of Kinetic Energy.
What is the relationship for volume and pressure for gasses?
When the volume of a container decreases, the molecules have less room to move around. The number of molecular collisions with each other and the walls of the container increases, resulting in an increase of pressure.
What is the relationship between pressure and temperature for gasses?
If the energy on the system is increased, the speed of the molecule (temperature) increases, resulting in an increase of collisions between the molecules and with the walls of the container (pressure).
What is the relationship between volume and temperature for gasses?
A decreas in energy on a container will cause a decrese in the the speed of the molecules (temperature). To sustain the original number of collisions (pressure remaining constant) the molecueles must be given less room to move around. Therefore, if there is to be a decrease in temperature, the volume must decrease if the pressure is to remain constant.
Avagadro’s Law
equal volumes of gas at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles.
What is Avagadro’s Number?
6.02 x 10^23 particles = 1 mole
What is used to represent an element?
Symbols
List the classes of elements.
Metals, Nonmetals, Metaloids
List the prop.erties and location for metals
They are shiny, have luster, reflect heat and light, conduct electricity and heat, they are ductile and malleable, and are located on the left of the imaginary stairstep line on the periodic table.
List the properties and location of the metalloids.
They are located on the stairstep and have some properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Diatomic Elements
Elements which contain two atoms per molecule
List the diatomic elements
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Flourine, Clorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine
Atomic Number
The number of protons in an atom
Atomic Mass
The average mass of the masses of the isotopes of an atom.
Isotope
Different attoms which have the same number of protons, but different numbers of nuetrons.
Ion
An atom or group of atoms which possess an overall electrical charge formed by gaining or losing electrons.
Who proposed the modern atomic theory?
John Dalton
List the parts of the atom and tell which particles are located in each.
Electron- electron cloud
Proton- nucleus
Nuetron- nucleus
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