Exam#1

Solid
Pure Substance has definite physical and chemical properties.*Physical properties: has units in numbers eg; Density, Boiling Point
Liquid
*Chemical Property: Words to describe reactive property eg; Flammable, Toxic, Carcinogen, Skin Irritant
Gas
Element: can not be broken down into a simpler substance
Compound: Definite combination of elements
Mixtures
Two or more substances mixed together
Homogeneous Mixture
Same composition through out mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture
It is not the same through out the mixture eg;Smoke, Sea Water, Rock
Filtration
Separation of Liquids through distillation, or boiling point.
Precision
How close are data runs- checked by statistics(mathematical average)
Accuracy
How close to true value- checked by standard checks method.
Acids
Produce H+
Bases
Produce H-
HCL
Hydrochloric Acid-Stomach Acid
HNO3
Nitric Acid-Explosives
H2SO4 (2H+ + (SO4)^-2)
Sulfuric Acid-Car Batteries
H3PO4 (3H+ + (PO4)^-3)
Phosphoric Acid- making drugs
H2CO3 (2H+ + (CO3)^-2)
Carbonic Acid
Physical Property to Separate Air
Boiling Point
Cr2(CO3)3 Cr3 + (CO3)^-2
Chromium (III) Carbonate
Hg2Cl2 2Hg + 2Cl^-1
Mercury(I)Chloride
Dalton and Thomson Atomic Theory
Matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to the obsolete notion that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. If two elements can together form more than one compound, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small integers. Each chemical element is composed of atoms of a single, unique type, and though they cannot be altered or destroyed by chemical means, they can combine to form more complex structures.
NaOH (Na+ + OH-)
Sodium Hydroxide- Drain Cleaner
Ca(OH)2 (Ca^+2 + 2(OH)^-)
Calcium Hydroxide-Tums
Mg(OH)2 (Mg^+2 + 2(OH)^-)
Magnesium Hydroxide
NH4OH ((NH4)^+ + (OH)^-)
Ammonium Hydroxide
Naming Salts
Name the cation (element or compound with + charge), then name the anion (element or compound with – charge)
FeCl3 (Fe^+3 + 3Cl^-)
Iron(III)Chloride
Ni(NO3)2 (Ni^+2 + 2(NO3)^-)
Nickle(II)Nitrate
(OAc)^- or (C2H3O2)^-
Acetate
OAcH
Acetic Acid
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