Exambusters Chemistry Study Cards 1

Scientific Notation
A number expressed as A x 10^B
A is between 1.00 and 9.99, and B is an integer
Energy
The ability to do work; it is released or absorbed during chemical reactions in the form of heat, light, electricity. units: calorie, Joule; 1 cal = 4.18 J
Matter
A substance that occupies space and has mass.
Weight
Measures gravitational force. Varies slightly on Earth, and significantly elsewhere.
Potential Energy
Energy due to position or stored energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Mass
The amount of matter. Never varies
Degree of Uncertainty
Depends on the skill of the person doing the measuring and the limitations of the measuring instrument. The last significant figure in a measurement is always uncertain.
Absolute zero
give in Kelvin, Celsius
Lowest possible temperature where all atomic motion ceases.
0 K
-273 degrees C
Express:
100 grams
1 hectogram
Express:
1/10 liter
1 deciliter
Express:
1000 meters
1 kilometer
Express:
0.001 grams
1 milligram
Metric abbreviation:
decigram
dg
Metric abbreviation:
kiloliter
kL
Metric abbreviation:
hectoliter
hm
Metric abbreviation:
milligram
mg
Metric system unit for:
mass
gram
Metric system unit for:
volume
liter
Metric system unit for:
length
meter
Metric system unit for:
time
second
Rules for multiplication of numbers in scientific notation.
Multiply the first numbers and add the exponents.
(3 X 10^5)(2 X 10^3) = 6 X 10^8
Rules for division of numbers in scientific notation.
Divide the first numbers and subtract the exponents.
(8 x 10^6)/(2 x 10^10) = 4 x 10^-4
Metric symbol:
gram
g
Metric symbol:
meter
m
Metric symbol:
liter
L
Freezing point of water in Celsius
0
Freezing point of water in Kelvin
273
Freezing point of water in Fahrenheit
32
Boiling point of water in Celsius
100
Boiling point of water in Kelvin
373
Boiling point of water in Fahrenheit
212
Metric prefix for:
0.1
deci
Metric prefix for:
0.01
centi
Metric prefix for:
0.001
milli
Metric prefix for:
0.000000001
nano
State the volume and mass of water at 4 °C

This is the point of Maximum density

 

1 g occupies 1 cm3

 

1 L = 1 kg

Metric prefix for: 1,000,000
mega
Metric prefix for: 1000
kilo
Metric prefix for: 100
hecto
Metric prefix for: 10
deka
Metric system unit for:
temperature
Kelvin or Celsius
Metric system unit for:
electric current
ampere
Metric system unit for:
amount of a substance
mole
Conversion factors:
feet to inches
1 ft = 12 in
Conversion factors:
kilogram to grams
1 kg = 1000 gm
Conversion factors:
miles to kilometers
1 mile = 1.61 Km
Convert degree Celsius to Kelvin
K = degree C + 273
Convert from scientific notation: 1.23 X 104
12300
Convert from scientific notation: 6 X 10-3
0.006
Metric symbol: seconds
s
Metric symbol: Celsius
 °C
Metric symbol: Kelvin
K
Metric symbol: moles
mol
Metric symbol: amperes
a
Convert to scientific notation: 695
6.95 X 102
Convert to scientific notation: 0.04
4.0 X 10-2
Convert to scientific notation: 3000
3.0 X 103
Use conversion factors to solve: How many kilograms in 2000 grams?
(2000 g)(1 kg/1000 g) = 2 kg
Use conversion factors to solve: How many feet in 60 inches
(60 “) (1’/12”) = 5 feet
How many significant digits? 300
1
How many significant digits? 0.0020
2
How many significant digits? 4006
4
How many significant digits? 5.00
3
Precision
reliability or reproducibility of a measurement
Accuracy
how close a measurement comes to the accepted value
Significant digit rules.
Digits measured
All non-zero digits
Zero unless they are placeholders
x

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