Exambusters Chemistry Study Cards 7

Compare ionic radii: Cl, S, P What is the reason for their different sizes?
Cl1- is smallest; P3- is largest The P atom gained the most e and has the most shells.
Compare ionic radii: Na, Mg, Al What is the reason for their different sizes?
Na1+ is largest Al3+ is smallest The Al atom lost the most e and has the fewest shells.
Describe the change in nonmetallic activity across the periodic table.
Non-metallic activity increases across the table left to right and decreases down the columns.
Describe the change in electronegativity across the periodic table.
Electronegativity tends to increase across the table left to right, and decrease down the columns.
Describe the change in metallic activity across the periodic table.
Metallic activity decreases across the table left to right and increases down the columns.
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract the e in a covalent bond to itself. Values range from 0.7 (Cs) to 4.0 (F)
Describe the change in ionization energy across the periodic table
Ionization energy tends to increase from left to right across the table and decrease down the columns.
Ionization energy
The energy change required for the removal of the outermost electron from a gaseous atom to form a 1+ ion.
List basic facts: Chromium

bluish-white, brittle transition metal, hard, corrosion-resistant

chief ore: chromite

uses: chromium plating, paint pigment

List basic facts: Nickel

Hard, white metal which resists tarnish; ferromagnetic, the magnetic alloy is called alnico.

uses: coins; catalyst for hydrogenation of fats

List basic facts: Copper

principal ores: chalcocite, cuprite chalcopyrite soft, red-brown, ductile, malleable

uses: wires, brass, bronze

List basic facts: Zinc

principal ores: sphalerite, smithsonite, zincite

uses: galvanized iron, dry cells, electrical connectors, die casting

List basic facts: mercury

The only liquid metal at room temperature.

uses: thermometers, Hg vapor lamps

List basic facts: Oxygen
Most abundant element of earth (20% or air, 89% or H2O). Obtained by fractional distillation of liquid air or electrolysis of water. Reactive at high temperatures.
List basic facts: Nitrogen
Major component of air (78%). Obtained by fractional distillation of liquid air. Inert and stable. compounds: NH3, NHO3, NO
List basic facts: Chlorine
kills bacteria in H2O. component of gastric juice in stomach (HCl) table salt (NaCl) produced by electrolysis of seawater
List basic facts: Fluorine
Elemental gas is poisonous. Component of freon (refrigerator gas), plastics, toothpaste, insecticides.
List basic facts: Iodine
Obtained from nitrate and seawater deposits. Used in the drug industry (iodine solution, iodoform) and in table salt.
List basic facts: Bromine
Liquid at room temperature. Prepared from seawater. Used in the petroleum, drug and photographic industries.
List basic facts: Phosphorus

two allotropes: white and red

can combine with oxygen and hydrogen

used in: matches, rat poison, grenades

compounds: H3PO4, phosphates

List basic facts: Sulfur

Not active at room temperature.

Large amounts occur in nature.

Occurs in 3 allotropic forms.

Compounds: H2SO4, SO2, sulfa drugs, gunpowder, matches

List basic facts: Silicon

second to oxygen in abundance (25% of earth’s crust) found in silicate rocks, clay, mica, SiO2, quartz, sand

hard and brittle; SiO2 forms glass

List basic facts: Carbon

allotropic: e.g. diamond, graphite backbone of molecules in plants and animals.

compounds: fats, sugars, gasoline

List basic facts: Ammonium ion

The ammonium ion (NH41+) behaves chemically like an alkali metal.

Uses: fertilizers, baking powder, soldering flux, explosives

List basic facts: Magnesium

abundant (2% of the earth’s crust) found in seawater, salt beds and silicates

uses: structural metal, flashbulbs, milk of magnesia

List basic facts: Tin
soft, white low-melting metal uses: tinplate to protect steal and in alloys
List basic facts: Lead
Soft, non-elastic, low-melting, blue-white metal. Becomes dark grey in air. uses: piping, telephone cables, alloys
List basic facts: Silver

Found uncombined or as Ag2S; bright, lustrous, soft, malleable.

uses: silver plating, jewelry, photographic film and paper

List basic facts: Gold

Found uncombined as nuggets or grains.

Uses: coins, jewelry, alloys

List basic facts: Platinum Metals
Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt Inert, occurs free in nature, rare and expensive Uses of Platinum: dentistry, jewelry, industrial catalyst
List basic facts: Calcium
abundant 3% of Earth’s crust) found in limestone, marble, chalk, and seashells Uses: essential to bones and teeth, concrete, mortar
List basic facts: Aluminum
most abundant metal (7% of earth’s crust) found in mica, feldspar bauxite (principal ore) uses: structure (wheels, building) foil, paint, electric wires
List basic facts: Iron
abundant (5% of Earth’s crust) principal ores: hematite, pyrite, magnetite separated from ore in a blast furnace uses: structural, magnetic, dyes
Ionic Hydride
Hydrogen combines with active metals to form ionic compounds where the valence of hydrogen is 1- (NaH), CaH2, LiH)
Combustion
A reaction where O2 combines with another substance so rapidly that heat and light are released.
Write the equation for the combustion of methane.
CH4 + 2O2;; CO2 + 2H2O
Nitrogen fixation
The process of inducing nitrogen to combine chemically with other elements. e.g. 3Mg + N2;; Mg3N2
Haber process
The fixation of nitrogen to hydrogen, in the presence of metal catalyst, at high temperature and pressure, to form ammonia. N2 +3H2;; 2NH3
Deionization
A process to separate water from its solutes. Water flows through resins which absorb the ions.
Distillation
A process used to separate a mixture based on different boiling points of the components. Components are separately vaporized then condensed.
Malleable
A physical property of metals; can be easily made into sheets e.g. aluminum foil
Ductile
A physical property of metals; can be drawn into a wire. e.g. copper electrical wires
Halogens
A family (Group VIIA) of elements with seven electrons in their outer shell. They are abundant and chemically active. F, Cl, Br, I, At
Noble Metals
The few metals which occur uncombined in nature: gold, silver, platinum, copper
Metalloid
An element with the properties of both metals and non-metals. e.g. Si, AS, Ge, Sb, Te
Alkaline Earth Metals
a family of metals which form 2+ cations chemically active their oxides form mildly basic solutions e.g. Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba
Describe the change in Atomic Radius across the periodic table
The atomic radius tends to decrease from left to right across the table and increase down the columns.
Lanthanide and Actinide Series
Transition elements #57-71 and #90-103 which have partially filled f orbitals. Only the first four elements occur naturally