Exambusters Chemistry Study Cards 8

Valence
The number of electrons in the atom’s highest numbered or outermost shell.
Valences of elements in family: IA
1
Valences of elements in family: IIA
2
Valences of elements in family: IIIA
3
Valences of elements in family: IVA
4
Valences of elements in family: VA
5
Valences of elements in family: VIA
6
Valences of elements in family: VIIA
7
Valences of elements in family: VIIIA
8
Valence of: Na
1
Valence of: Cl
7
Valence of: O
6
Valence of: Al
3
Electron configuration
The distribution of electrons into shells and sub levels for an atom of an element. Each element has a unique electron configuration.
Write the electron configuration: lithium
1s22s1
Write the electron configuration: iron
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6
Hund’s Rule
Within a sub level, the order of filling orbitals is chosen to maximize half filled orbitals. All single electrons have parallel spins.
Describe the shape of the orbital: s
sphere
Describe the shape of the orbital: p
dumbbell shape with 2 lobes (p for parallel axes)
Describe the shape of the orbital: d
double dumbbell; most have 4 lobes (d for diagonals)
Describe the shape of the orbital: f
most have 8 lobes
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in an atom can have an identical set of four quantum numbers
How does the Pauli Exclusion Principle apply to electron spin?
The two electrons in any orbital must have opposite spins. (+1/2 or -1/2)
What is the order for filling sub levels (Aufbau Process) from lowest to highest energy?
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d
Which sublevels are present in energy level: 1
s
Which sublevels are present in energy level: 2
s, p
Which sublevels are present in energy level: 3
s, p, d
Which sublevels are present in energy levels: 4, 5, 6, 7
s, p, d, f
Orbital
An orbital is contained in a sublevel and holds two electrons.
How many orbitals in sublevel: s
1
How many orbitals in sub level: p
3
How many orbitals in sub level: d
5
How many orbitals in sub level: f
7
List the names of the four sub levels and their electron capacities.

Sublevel s holds two electrons

Sublevel p holds 6 electrons

Sublevel d holds 10 electrons

Sublevel f holds 14 electrons

Ground State
Electron is at its lowest energy level, as close to the nucleus as possible.
Excited State
An electron absorbs energy and moves to a higher energy level above the ground state.
List the three basic postulates of the Bohr Model for the hydrogen atom.

1. e are present only in specific energy states.

2. A quantum of energy is absorbed or emitted to change energy levels.

3. A quantum is the smallest amount of energy that can be gained or lost.

Lyman, Balmer and Paschen Series

Groups of lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen. Lyman- ultraviolet, six lines

Balmer- visible, five lines

Paschen- infra-red, four lines

Quantum theory equation relating energy to frequency.
E = hƒ
Quantum theory equation relating wavelength to frequency
c = ƒλ
Emission Spectrum
A bright line spectrum formed when energy absorbed by an element is emitted at specific wavelengths. Each element has a unique spectrum.
Absorption Spectrum
A dark-line spectrum formed when white light is passed through a vaporized element and a few specific wavelengths are absorbed.
Planck’s constant
h = 6.63 X 10-34 J;sec/particle
Quantum
A packet of energy associated with a specific wavelength of electromagnetic radiation.
Quantum number
A number used to describe the energy levels available to an electron. Each electron in an atom has a unique set of four.
Lewis Dot Structure
Consists of the atom’s symbol surrounded by the same number of dots as the atom’s valence. May be used for elements, compounds, or polyatomic ions.
Photon
An individual packet or quantum of radiant energy of a specific wavelength.
Paramagnetic
An atom or group of atoms which has magnetic properties due to unpaired electrons in its orbitals.
Diamagnetic
A term indicating a substance which does not contain unpaired electrons and is therefore not attracted to a magnetic field.
Spectroscope
Instrument which disperses light emitted by energized atoms and allows examination of their spectra.
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