Exambusters Study Cards 18 Organic Chemistry

Monosaccharide

A basic carbohydrate with a six-carbon formula.

e.g. glucose, fructose.

Can not be broken down further into simpler sugars.

Polysaccharide

Made of more than one monosaccharide.

e.g. starch, cellulose, dextrin.

Can be broken down to monosaccharide molecules by hydrolysis.

Primary Alcohol
The OH group is attached to the end carbon of the chain.
Secondary Alcohol
The carbon bearing the OH group is directly attached to two other carbons.
Carbohydrate

Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Usually the H:O ratio is 2:1

e.g. sugars and starches

How are ketones formed?
By the oxidation of a secondary alcohol.
Amino Acid

Organic compounds which contain an amine and a carboxyl group.

H

;; H2N – C – COOH

;’

  R

How is an ether formed?
By reacting two primary alcohols.
Esterification
A reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol to form an ester.
Ester

A hydrocarbon containing an ester functional group. R-O-C-R

    “

    O

Ether
A hydrocarbon containing an ether functional group. R-O-R
Carboxylic Acid

A hydrocarbon containing the carboxyl functional group.

     R-C-O-H

 “

 O

Alcohol

Hydrocarbons which contain the hydroxyl functional group (OH) attached to a saturated carbon.

R-O-H

Polymerization
The combination of two or more unsaturated molecules to form a larger chain molecule. This is how plastics are made.
Cracking

During cracking, long chain hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller molecules.

e.g. C16H34 → C8H18 + C8H16

Isomer
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas (different connectivity).
Aromatic Compounds

Unsaturated ring structures with six carbon atoms. General formula: CnH2n-6

Benzene is the simplest aromatic.

Are alkanes saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated
Are alkenes saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated
Are alkynes saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated
Substitution Reaction
A reaction where one of the hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon is replaced by another.
Which elements commonly substitute in alkanes?

Usually a halogen substitute in alkanes.

e.g. CH4 + Br2 ↔ CH3Br + HBr

Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: one
meth
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: two
eth
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: three
prop
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: four
but
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: five
pent
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: six
hex
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: seven
hept
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: eight
oct
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: nine
non
Prefixes for naming hydrocarbons: ten
dec
Alkene
A series of hydrocarbons containing at least one double covalent bond. General formula: CnH2n
Basic facts about carbon bonding.

carbon forms more compounds than any other element each atom

carbon requires 4 covalent bonds

carbon can form long chains and rings

carbon bonds commonly to O, H, N, S, P, and halogens

Organic Chemistry
The chemistry of carbon compounds
Hydrocarbon
Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen.
Alkane
A series of hydrocarbons with only single covalent bonds. General formula: CnH2n+2
Alkyne
A series of hydrocarbons containing at least one triple covalent bond. General formula: CnH2n-2
Name for alkane with one carbon in a molecular chain
methane
Name for alkane with two carbons in a molecular chain
ethane
Name for alkane with three carbons in a molecular chain
propane
Name for alkane with four carbons in a molecular chain
butane
Name for alkane with five carbons in a molecular chain
pentane
Name for alkane with six carbons in a molecular chain
hexane
Name for alkane with seven carbons in a molecular chain
heptane
Name for alkane with eight carbons in a molecular chain
octane
Name for alkane with nine carbons in a molecular chain
nonane
Name for alkane with ten carbons in a molecular chain
decane
Cycloalkane
An alkane which has a ring structure instead of a chain. e.g. benzene
Addition Reaction

In an unsaturated hydrocarbon, two atoms may be added to the structure across a double or triple bond.

e.g. C2H2 + Br2 ↔ CH2Br2

Alkylation

The combining of a saturated alkane with an unsaturated alkene.

e.g. C4H10 + C4H8 ↔ C8H18

Hydrogenation
The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Dehydrogenation
The process of removing hydrogen from a hydrocarbon.
Aldehyde

A hydrocarbon containing the aldehyde functional group. R-C-H

O

Ketone

A hydrocarbon containing a ketone functional group. R-C-R

O

Amine
A hydrocarbon containing an amine functional group. R-NH2
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